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Chief Ministers of Indian States

Andhra Pradesh : Dr.Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy

Arunachal Pradesh : Shri Dorjee Khandu

Assam : Shri Tarun Gogoi

Bihar : Shri Nitish Kumar

Chhattisgarh : Dr. Raman Singh

Delhi : Smt Sheila Dikshit

Goa : Shri Digambar Kamat

Gujarat : Shri Narendra Modi

Haryana : Shri Bhupinder Singh Hooda

Himachal Pradesh : Prof. Prem Kumar Dhumal

Jammu and Kashmir : Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad

Jharkhand : Shri Madhu Koda

Karnataka : President Rule

Kerala : Shri V. S. Achuthanandan

Madhya Pradesh : Shri Shivraj Singh Chouhan

Maharashtra : Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh

Manipur : Shri Okram Ibobi Singh

Meghalaya : Shri J. D. Rymbai

Mizoram : Shri Zoramthanga

Nagaland : Shri Neiphiu Rio

Orissa : Shri Naveen Patnaik

Puducherry : Shri N. Rangasamy

Punjab : Shri Parkash Singh Badal

Rajasthan : Smt. Vasundhara Raje

Sikkim : Shri Pawan Chamling

Tamil Nadu : Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi

Tripura : Shri Manik Sarkar

Uttar Pradesh : Kumari Mayawati

Uttarakhand : Shri B. C. Khanduri

West Bengal : Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee

Indian Goverment Who's Who

President of India- Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil
Vice President of Indi- Shri Mohd. Hamid Ansari
Prime Minister of India - Dr. Manmohan Singh
1 Prime Minister and also In-Charge of the Ministries/Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Ministry viz: Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions;2 Ministry of Planning;3 Department of Atomic Energy;4 Department of Space;5 Ministry of Coal;6 Ministry of Environment & Forests
7 Shri Pranab Mukherjee -Ministry of External Affairs
8 Shri Kapil Sibal -Ministry of Science & Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences
9 Shri Lalu Prasad -Ministry of Railways
10 Shri Shivraj V. Patil - Ministry of Home Affairs
11 Shri Ram Vilas Paswan - Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers and Ministry of Steel
12 Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises Shri Sontosh Mohan Dev
13 Ministry of Defence - Shri A.K.Antony
14 Shri Arjun Singh - Ministry of Human Resource Development
15 Shri Prem Chand Gupta -Ministry of Company Affairs
16 Shri Sushil Kumar Shinde -Ministry of Power
17 Sri S. Jaipal Reddy - Ministry of Urban Development
18 Fernandes Shri Oscar - Ministry of Labour & Employment
19 Shri Sharad Pawar - Ministry of Agriculture, Consumer Affairs and Food & Public Distribution
20 Shri Sis Ram Ola - Ministry of Mines
21 Shri P. Chidambaram - Ministry of Finance
22 Shri Mahavir Prasad - Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
23 Shri P.R. Kyndiah - Ministry of Tribal Affairs
24 Shri T.R. Baalu - Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways
25 Shri Shankersinh Vaghela - Ministry of Textiles
26 Shri Kamal Nath - Ministry of Commerce & Industry
27 Shri H.R. Bhardwaj- Ministry of Law & Justice
28 Shri Vayalar Ravi - Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs
29 Shri Abdul Rehman Antulay - Ministry of Minority Affairs
30 Shri Raghuvansh Prasad Singh - Ministry of Rural Development
31 Shri Priyaranjan Dasmunsi - Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs & Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
32 Shri Mani Shankar Aiyar -Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
33 Shri Murli Deora - Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
34 Smt. Meira Kumar - Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
35 Smt. Ambika Soni - Ministry of Tourism and Culture
36 Shri A. Raja - Ministry of Communications & Information Technology
37 Dr. Anbumani Ramdoss - Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
38 Prof. Saif-ud-Din Soz - Ministry of Water Resources

Historical Places in India

India is a land with a rich and varied history. Many different rulers, dynasties and empires have fought over and controlled different parts of the Indian subcontinent during its eventful history. The various rulers and dynasties left behind their legacy in the form of grand monuments and buildings, in different historical places in India.
Most of India's cities have a history worth exploring, for the tales of the past are truly fascinating. The various monuments including palaces, forts, victory pillars and tombs in different historical places in India, tell glorious stories of India's fascinating history.
The modern capital of India - New Delhi was built in the location of an ancient imperial capital. Originally the capital of the Tomara clan in the 11th century A.D, Delhi was later the capital of the Delhi sultanate, the mighty Mughal empire and of the British in India. Monuments of Prithviraj Chauhan, the Lodi Tombs, the Siri Fort of Allauddin Khilji, The Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Humayun's Tomb from Mughal times and Rashtrapati Bhawan and Parliament House built in British times are all monuents you will see on your tour of Delhi - one of the most fascinating historical places in India.
The city of Agra was the imperial capital of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Shah Jahan. He built the beautiful mausoleum - the Taj Mahal - for his consort Mumtaz Mahal after her death in 1631. Agra also has many other Mughal monuments - the Agra Fort, the tomb of Itimad-ud-Daulah, and Akbar's fort at Sikandra near Agra, which make a visit to this historical place in Uttar Pradesh, India, a must see on your tour of the historical places in India.
Located in Maharashtra on India's west coast Aurangabad is known for being made the capital of the Tughlaq Empire during the reign of Muhammed-bin-Tughlaq. The Devagiri Fort is a historical monument in Auragabad. The city is also near two very important historical places in India - the cave temples of Ajanta and Ellora. These Buddhist, Jain and Hindu cave temples are marvels of Indian architecture, carved out of rock in the hills. The frescoes on the Ahjanta Caves and the exquisite carvings of the Ellora Caves have led to their being recognized as UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Located in Bihar, India, Bodhgaya is known for its association with Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism - a religion, which originated in India and now has followers all over the world. Buddhist pilgrims from around the world, travel to the historical places in India associated with Buddha's life, including Bodhagaya, the site where Buddha gained enlightenment. The Bodhi tree and Mahabodhi Temple are significant landmarks in Bodhgaya.
A city better known as the modern financial capital of India, Mumbai however does have a rich history. Originally inhabited by Koli fishermen, this collection of 7 islands was part of Portuguese territory in India. Handed over to the British as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza - when she married Charles II of England in 1661, Mumbai has some remarkable colonial architecture and monuments including the Victoria Terminus - now called Chhattrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Gateway of India.
This imperial capital of the Nizams of Hyderabad, is home to many grand monuments including the Charminar, the Golconda Fort, the Qutab Shahi Tombs and the Falaknuma Palace. History and modernity coexist in this city, where a mixture of religions, cultures and architectural styles come together to create one of the most interesting historical places in India.
Built by the astronomer King Sawaii Jai Singh in 1727 and endowed with grand palaces and magnificent forts, Jaipur is one of the most visited historical places in India. The Hawa Mahal, City Palace, Amber Fort and fascinating astronomical instruments at the Jantar Mantar, make Jaipur a must visit historical destination in India.
This city in Rajasthan, India, founded by Rawal Jaisal in 1156 A.D., is known for its magnificent golden fortress, historic carved havelis, windswept sand dunes and desert festival - where culture, color and camels provide a feast to the eye.
Sparkling like white pearls in the blue waters of Lake Pichola, the lake palaces of Udaipur are historic and architectural gems of Rajasthan, India. This historic city founded by Maharana Udai Singh, is a delight for tourists and historians alike.
The majestic Mehrangarh Fort, set on a high hill overlooks this town of blue painted walls and magnificent palaces, including the Umaid Bhawan Palace. Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India, was previously the princely state of Marwar. The museums in the fort and the palace are among the best maintained in India and display weaponry, armor, ornaments and palanquins from royal times. Jodhpur is one of the historical places in India where history can be seen even today.
A city with a history of valor and sacrifice unequalled by any other, Chittorgarh in Rajasthan, India, was attacked thrice and suffered immense casualties, as the men died defending the fort and the women immolated themselves rather than be taken prisoner.
First attacked by Allaudin Khilji, who sought the beautiful Rani Padmini in 1303, than attacked by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in 1535 and finally by Emperor Akbar in 1567, this historical place in India has seen many gory battles and acts of heroic sacrifice.
These world famous temples in Madhya Pradesh, India were built between the years 950 and 1050 A.D., during the reign of the Chandella dynasty. The temples are recognized worldwide for the excellence of their sculptures and for the erotic carvings on the temple walls. The Khajuraho temples are one of the most visited and studied historical places in India.
The magnificent sun temple of Konarak in Orissa, was built by King Narasimhadeva I in the 13th century, when Konark was a busy port city. The temple, which is Konarak city's best known landmark, is designed in the shape of a giant chariot with 24 wheels, drawn by 7 horses, and set alongside the sea shore. This historic monument is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an architectural marvel, in this historical place in Eastern India.
Known for its most recognizable landmark the towering Meenakshi Temple, Madurai was visited by the Greek historian Megasthenes in the 3rd century B.C. when it was a flourishing town. A busy port under Chola, Pandya and Nayaka rulers, Madurai continues to be an important town in Tami Nadu and one of the most fascinating historical places in India.
This historic seaport on the Tamil Nadu coast, grew to become an artistic center of the Pallava dynasty during the reign of Narasimhavarman Pallava. The five chariot shaped temples or rathas, the shore temple and the carved depictions of episodes from the Mahabharata are artistic highlights of this historic place in South India.
The capital of the Wodeyar dynasty that ruled over Mysore, this city is home to the grand Mysore Palace, the Lalitha Mahal Palace, several historic art galleries, the palaces of Tipu Sultan and traditional craftsmen who create fine Mysore silk and products made from sandalwood. Witness south Indian history come alive, in one of the most culturally rich, historic places in India.
Considered to be one of the oldest cities in India, Varanasi attracts thousands of tourists who come to experience its spiritual ambience. The ceremonial Ghats, the university, archaeological museum, and the many temples in Varanasi make it a unique city where history is very much a part of daily life. Varanasi is one of the most important religious and historical places in India.

Indian Constitution (Amendment) Acts

1. The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951. Date on which the Act came into force: 18-6-1951 (Date of Assent)
2. The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-5-1953 (Date of Assent).
3. The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954. Date on which the Act came into force: 22-2-1955 (Date of Assent).
4. The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955. Date on which the Act came into force: 27-4-1955 (Date of Assent).
5. The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955. Date on which the Act came into force: 24-12-1955 (Date of Assent).
6. The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956. Date on which the Act came into force: 11-9-1956 (Date of Assent).
7. The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-11-1956 (as per s. 1(2) of the Act).
8. The Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1959. Date on which the Act came into force: 5-1-1960 (Date of Assent).
9. The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960. Date on which the Act came into force: 28-12-1960 (Date of Assent).
10. The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961. Date on which the Act came into force: 11-8-1961 (as per s. 1 (2) of the Act).
11. The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961. Date on which the Act came into force: 19-12-1961 (Date of Assent).
12. The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-12-1961 (as per s. 1 (2) of the Act).
13. The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-12-1963 [GSR 1734, dated 30-10-1963].
14. The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962 Date on which the Act came into force: 28-12-1962 (Date of Assent).
15. The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963. Date on which the Act came into force: 5-10-1963 (Date of Assent).
16. The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963. Date on which the Act came into force: 5-10-1963 (Date of Assent).
17. The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-6-1964 (Date of Assent).
18. The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966. Date on which the Act came into force: 27-8-1966 (Date of Assent).
19. The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966. Date on which the Act came into force: 11-12-1966 (Date of Assent).
20. The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966. Date on which the Act came into force: 22-12-1966 (Date of Assent).
21. The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967. Date on which the Act came into force: 10-4-1967 (Date of Assent).
22. The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969. Date on which the Act came into force: 25-9-1969 (Date of Assent).
23. The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969 Date on which the Act came into force: 23-1-1970 (Date of Assent).
24. The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971 Date on which the Act came into force: 5-11-1971 (Date of Assent).
25. The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-4-1972 (Date of Assent).
26. The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971. Date on which the Act came into force: 28-12-1971 (Date of Assent).
27. The Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971. Date on which the Act came into force:-- (i) Ss. 1 and 3.....30-12-1971 (as per s. 1 (2) of the Act). (ii) Ss. 2, 4 and 5 15-2-1972 [GSR 73(E), dated 14-2-1972].
28. The Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972. Date on which the Act came into force: 29-8-1972 [GSR 391(E), dated 29-8-1972].
29. The Constitution (Twenty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1972. Date on which the Act came into force: 9-6-1972 (Date of Assent).
30. The Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972. Date on which the Act came into force: 27-2-1973 [GSR 73(E), dated 27-2-1973].
31. The Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973. Date on which the Act came into force: 17-10-1973 (Date of Assent).
32. The Constitution (Thirty-second Amendment) Act, 1973. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-7-1974 [GSR 297(E), dated 1-7-1974].
33. The Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974. Date on which the Act came into force: 19-5-1974 (Date of Assent).
34. The Constitution (Thirty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1974. Date on which the Act came into force: 7-9-1974 (Date of Assent).
35. The Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-3-1975 [GSR 61(E), dated 28-2-1975].
36. The Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975. Date on which the Act came into force: 26-4-1975 (As per s. 1 (2)- i.e. date on which the Bill "as passed by the House of People is passed by the Council of States").
37. The Constitution (Thirty-seventh) Act, 1975. Date on which the Act came into force: 3-5-1975 (Date of Assent).
38. The Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-8-1975 (Date of Assent).
39. The Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975. Date on which the Act came into force: 10-8-1975 (Date of Assent).
40. The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976. Date on which the Act came into force: 27-5-1976 (Date of Assent).
41. The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976. Date on which the Act came into force: 7-9-1976 (Date of Assent).
42. The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. Date on which the Act came into force:-- (i) Sections 2 to 5, 7 to 17, 20, 28, 29, 30, 33, 36, 43 to 53, 55, 56, 57 and 59. 3-1-1977 (ii) Sections 6, 23 to 26, 37 to 42, 54 and 58. 1-2-1977 (iii) Section 27 1-4-1977 [GSR 2(E), dated 3-1-1977].
43. The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977. Date on which the Act came into force: 13-4-1978 (Date of Assent).
44. The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978. Date on which the Act came into force:-- (i) Sections 2, 4 to 16, 22, 23, 25 to 29, 31 to 42, 44 and 45 20-6-1979 [GSR 383(E), dated 19-6-1979]. (ii) Sections 17 to 21 and 30 1-8-1979 [GSR 383(E), dated 19-6-1979]. (iii) Sections 24 and 43 6-9-1979 [GSR 529(E), dated 5-9-1979].
45. The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980. Date on which the Act came into force: 25-1-1980 (as per s. 1 (2) of the Act).
46. The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982. Date on which the Act came into force: 2-2-1983 (Date of Assent).
47. The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984. Date on which the Act came into force: 26-8-1984 (Date of Assent).
48. The Constitution (Forty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1984. Date on which the Act came came into force: 1-4-1985 (S.O. 184(E), dated 11-3-1985).
49. The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment)Act, 1984. Date on which the Act came into force: 11-09-1984.
50. The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984. Date on which the Act came into force: 11-9-1984 (Date of Assent).
51. The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984. Date on which the Act came into force: 16-6-1986 [GSR 871(E), dated 16-6-1986].
52. The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-3-1985 [GSR 131(E), dated 1-3-1985].
53. The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-2-1987 (S.O. 71 (E), dated 11-2-1987).
54. The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1986. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-4-1986 (as per s. 1 (2) of the Act).
55. The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-2-1987 (S.O. 73(E), dated 11-2-1987).
56. The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987. Date on which the Act came into force: 30-5-1987 (S.O. 517(E), dated 26-5-1987).
57. The Constitution (Fifty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1987. Date on which the Act came into force: 21-9-1987 [GSR 810(E), dated 21-9-1987].
58. The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987. Date on which the Act came into force: 9-12-1987 (Date of Assent).
59. The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988 Date on which the Act came into force: 30-3-1988 (Date of Assent).
60. The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-12-1988 (Date of Assent).
61. The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988. Date on which the Act came into force: 28-3-1989 (Date of Assent).
62. The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1989. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-12-1989 (as per s. 1 (2) of the Act, i.e. date on which the Bill for this Act is introduced in the Council of States).
63. The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment ) Act, 1989. Date on which the Act came into force: 6-1-1990 (Date of Assent).
64. The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment ) Act, 1990. Date on which the Act came into force: 16-4-1990 (Date of Assent).
65. The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990. Date on which the Act came into force: 12-3-1992 (S.O. 204(E), dated 12-3-1992).
66. The Constitution (Sixty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1990. Date on which the Act came into force: 7-6-1990 (Date of Assent).
67. The Constitution (Sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1990. Date on which the Act came into force: 4-10-1990 (Date of Assent).
68. The Constitution (Sixty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1991. Date on which the Act came into force: 12-3-1991 (Date of Assent).
69. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-2-1992 (S.O. 96(E), dated 31-1-1992).
70. The Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992. Date on which the Act came into force:-- (i) S.2........Yet to be notified. (ii) S.3........21-12-1991 (as per s.1 (2) of the Act).
71. The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992. Date on which the Act came into force: 31-8-1992 (Date of Assent).
72. The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992. Date on which the Act came into force: 5-12-1992 (S.O. 887(E), dated 5-12-1992).
73. The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992. Date on which the Act came into force: 24-4-1993 (S.O. 267(E), dated 24-4-1993).
74. The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992. Date on which the Act came into force: 1-6-1993 (S.O. 346(E), dated 1-6-1993).
75. The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1993. Date on which the Act came into force: 15-5-1994 (S.O. 372(E), dated 13-5-1994).
76. The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994. Date on which the Act came into force: 31-8-1994 (Date of Assent).
77. The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995. Date on which the Act came into force: 17-6-1995 (Date of Assent).
78. The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) Act, 1995. Date on which the Act came into force: 30-8-1995 (Date of Assent).
79. The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act, 2000. Date on which the Act came into force: 25-1-2000 ( Date of Assent: 21-1-2000).
80. The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000 .Date on which the Act came into force: 9-6-2000 (Date of Assent)
81. The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000. Date on which the Act came into force: 9-6-2000 (Date of Assent).
82. The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000.Date on which the Act came into force: 8-9-2000 (Date of Assent)
83. The Constitution (Eighty-third Amendment) Act, 2000.Date on which the Act came into force: 8-9-2000 (Date of Assent)
84. The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001.Date on which the Act came into force: 21-02-2002 (Date of Assent)
85 The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2002. Date on which the Act came into force: 4-1-2002 (Date of Assent)
86 The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. Date on which the Act came into force: 12-12-2002 (Date of Assent)
87 The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003. Date on which the Act came into force: 22-06-2003 (Date of Assent)
88 The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003. Date on which the Act came into force: 15-01-2004 (Date of Assent)
89 The Constitution (Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003. Date on which the Act came into force: 28-09-2003 (Date of Assent)
90 The Constitution (Ninetieth Amendment) Act, 2003. Date on which the Act came into force: 28-09-2003 (Date of Assent)
91 The Constitution (Ninety-First Amendment) Act, 2003. Date on which the Act came into force: 01-01-2004 (Date of Assent)
92 The Constitution (Ninety-Second Amendment) Act, 2003. Date on which the Act came into force: 07-01-2004 (Date of Assent)
93 The Constitution (Ninety-Third Amendment) Act, 2005. Date on which the Act came into force: 20-01-2006

Constitution of India

India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950. The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise his functions in accordance to the advice. The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Every State has a Legislative Assembly. Certain States have an upper House also called State Legislative Council. There is a Governor for each state who is appointed by the President. Governor is the Head of the State and the executive power of the State is vested in him. The Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as its head advises the Governor in the discharge of the executive functions. The Council of the Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the State. The Constitution distributes legislative powers between Parliament and State legislatures as per the lists of entries in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution. The residuary powers vest in the Parliament. The centrally administered territories are called Union Territories.

States and Union Territories of India

States and Union Territories India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closelyresembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc.

Indian States

Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir
Madhya Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu

Andhra Pradesh

Area : 2,75,069 sq km Population : 76,210,007 Capital : Hyderabad Principal Languages : Telugu and Urdu History and Geography The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 BC). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Regular history of Andhra Desa, according to historians, begins with 236 BC, the year of Ashoka‘s death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams. Gradually, from the 17th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and constituted the single province of Madras. After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1 October 1953. With the passing of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956. Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 974 km. AgricultureAgriculture is the main occupation of about 62 per cent of the people in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major food crop and staple food of the State contributing about 77 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the State's area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casurina, bamboo, softwood, etc. IrrigationImportant irrigation schemes implemented in the State are Godavari Delta System, Krishna Delta System, Nagarjunasagar project, Pennar Delta System, Tungabhadra Project H.L.C. (Stage-I), Tungabhadra Low-level Canal, Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal, Kadam Project, Rajolibanda Diversion Scheme, Nizam Sagar and Potharlanka. Other important projects under implementation are Vamsadhara Project Stage-I and II, Chagalnadu L.I. Scheme, Yeleru Reservoir Project, Tarakarama Krishnaveni L.I. Scheme, Veligonda Project, Somasila Project, Telugu Ganga Project, T.B.P.H.L.C. Stage-II, Pulivendla Branch Canal, K.C. Canal Modernisation Scheme, S.R.B.C., S.L.B.C. (AMR Project), S.R.S.P. Stage-I & II, Flood Flow Canal from S.R.S.P., Jurala Project, R.D.S. Link Canal, Bhima L.I. Scheme, T.B.P.H.L.C. Stage-I Modernisation, Guru Raghavendra Swamy L.I. Scheme and Singur Project. Andhra Pradesh is the first state to involve the farmers in the management of irrigation sources, boasting of 9,922 water user associations and 163 distributory committees formed. PowerImportant power projects in the State are: the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel Projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal power projects. The Srisailam Hydro Electric Project with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Nagarjunasagar Complex with 960 MW are the principal sources of hydel generation. Vijayawada Thermal Power Station with an installed capacity of 1,260 MW and Kothagudem Thermal Power Station with an installed capacity of 1,180 mw are the main sources of thermal power generation. The 1,000 mw coal-based Simhadri Thermal Power Station aims at supplying the entire energy generated to the State. Industry and Minerals There are several major industries in operation around Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. They manufacture machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers, electronic equipments, aeronautical parts, cement and cement products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire south India. TechnologyThe State government is also promoting Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at Hyderabad. IIIT offers 4-year UG and 2/3 year PG programmes. IBM, Oracle, Signal Tree, Satyam and Motorola have established their corporate schools. Transport
Roads: National Highways passing through Andhra Pradesh constitute 4,104 km. There are around 60,000 km of state highways and close to 1,04,000 km of Panchayati Raj roads in the State. Railways: Of the railways route covering 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 4,436 km is broad-gauge, 634 km is metre-gauge and 37 km is narrow gauge. Aviation: Important airports in the State are located at Hyderabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Hyderabad. Ports: Visakhapatnam is a major port in the State. Minor ports are located at Kakinada, Machilipatnam, Bheemunipatnam, Krishnapatnam, Vadarevu and Kalingapatnam. Tourist Centres Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda and Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Sri Sita Rama Temple at Bhadrachalam, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Nelapattu, etc., are the major tourist attractions in Andhra Pradesh. Thirty-three life-size statues of eminent Telugu personalities of the State were erected on Tankbund of Hussainsagar lake in Hyderabad. A giant statue of Lord Buddha of a height of about 60 feet has been erected on the Gibraltar rock in the Hussainsagar lake, which separates Hyderabad and Secunderabad cities.

Arunachal Pradesh

Area : 83,743 sq km Population : 1,097,968 Capital : Itanagar Principal Languages : Monpa, Miji, Aka, Sherdukpen, Nyishi, Apatani, Tagin, Hill Miri, Adi, Digaru-Mismi, Idu-Mishmi, Khamti, Miju-Mishmi, Nocte, Tangsa and Wancho. History and Geography Arunachal Pradesh, the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency shares international boundaries with Bhutan, Tibet, China and Myanmar to the west, north-east, north and east respectively, and the state boundaries with Assam and Nagaland. The terrain consists of submontane and mountainous ranges, sloping down to the plains of Assam, divided into valleys by the rivers Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap. There are practically no records relating to the history of this area, except some oral literature and a number of historical ruins found mainly in the foothills. Subsequent explorations and excavations have identified the ruins as dating approximately from the early Christian era. The historical evidence indicates that not only was the area well known, but the people living here had close relations with the rest of the country too. Modern history of Arunachal Pradesh begins with the inception of British rule in Assam after the treaty of Yandaboo, concluded on 24 February 1826. Before 1962, the area was popularly known as the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA), and was constitutionally a part of Assam. Because of its strategic importance, however, it was administered by the Ministry of External Affairs until 1965, and subsequently by the Ministry of Home Affairs, through the Governor of Assam. In 1972, it was constituted as a Union Territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. On 20 February 1987, it became the 24th state of the Indian Union. FestivalsSome of the important festivals of the State are: Mopin and Solung of the Adis, Lossar of the Monpas and Boori-boot of the Hill Miris, Sherdukpens, Dree of the Apatanis, Si-Donyi of the Tagins, Reh of the ldu-Mishmis, Nyokum of the Nishs, etc. Animal sacrifice is a common ritual in most festivals. Agriculture and Horticulture Agriculture is the mainstay of the people of Arunachal Pradesh, and had mainly depended on jhum cultivation. Encouragement is being given to the cultivation of cash crops like potatoes and horticulture crops like apples, oranges and pineapples.Industries and Minerals For conservation and explorations of vast minerals, the Arunachal Pradesh Mineral Development and Trading Corporation Limited (APMDTCL) were set up in 1991. Namchik-Namphuk coal fields are taken up by APMDTCL.To provide training to craftsmen in different trades, there are two Industrial Training Institutes at Roing and Daporijo. Irrigation and Power An area of more than 87,500 hectares has been irrigated in Arunachal Pradesh. The installed capacity of the State is about 30,735 MW. Around 2,600 villages have been electrified out of 3,649 villages in the State.TransportRoads : Arunachal Pradesh has 330 km of national highway.Tourist Centres Places of tourist interest are: Tawang, Dirang, Bomdila, Tipi, Itanagar Malinithan, Likabali, Pasighat, Along, Tezu, Miao, Roing, Daporijo Namdapha, Bhismaknagar, Parashurarn Kund and Khonsa.


Area : 78,438 sq km Population : 26, 638, 407 Capital : Dispur Principal Languages : Assamese History and Geography The word ‘Assam' as interpreted by some scholars is derived from the Sanskrit word Asoma meaning peerless or unparalleled. But the widely accepted opinion of the academic circles today is that the term has come from the original name of the Ahoms , who ruled the land for about six hundred years prior to its annexation by the British. The races like Austric, Mongolian, Dravidian and Aryan that came to this land long-long ago have contributed to its composite culture. Thus, Assam has a rich legacy of culture and civilization. Assam was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy during the epic period and later named as Kamrupa. The earliest epigraphic reference to the kingdom of Kamrupa is found in the Allahabad pillar inscription of king Samudragupta. Kamrupa is mentioned as a Pratyanta or frontier state outside the Gupta empire but with friendly and subordinate relation to it Hiuen Sang, the Chinese scholar pilgrim who visited Kamrupa in about 743 AD on an invitation of its monarch, Kumar Bhaskar Varman, left a record of the kingdom he called Kamolupa. Kamrupa also figured in the writings of the Arabian historian Alberuni in the eleventh century. Thus, from the epic period down to the twelfth century AD, the eastern frontier kingdom was known as Pragjyotisha and Kamrupa and kings called themselves ‘Lords of Pragjyotisha'. The advent of the Ahoms across the eastern hills in 1228 AD was the turning point in Assam history. They ruled Assam nearly for six centuries. The Burmese entered through the eastern borders and overran the territory at a time when court intrigues and dissensions were sapping the vitality of the Ahom royalty. It became a British protectorate in 1826 when the Burmese ceded Assam to the British under the provision of the Treaty of Yandabo. Assam is the sentinel of north-east India and gateway to the North-Eastern States. The State is close to India's international borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan. Assam is surrounded by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh on the east and Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram on the south. AgricultureAssam is an agricultural State. Agriculture occupies an important place in the economy of the State. The principal food crop is rice. The cash crops are jute, tea, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, potato, etc. Noteworthy horticulture items are orange, banana, pineapple, arecanut, coconut, guava, mango, jackfruit and citrus fruits. The State has an estimated 39.44 lakh hectares gross cropped area, of which net area sown is about 27.01 lakh hectares. ForestsAssam is known for her rich forest wealth which constituted 22.21 per cent of the total forest area.WildlifeThe State has five National Parks and eleven wildlife sanctuaries. The Kaziranga National Park and the Manas Tiger Project (National Park) are internationally famous for one horned Rhino and Royal Bengal Tiger respectively. IndustryOf agriculture-based industries, tea occupies an important place. There are six industrial growth Centres in the State. A Central Institute for Plastic Engineering Technology (CIPET) has been established at Amingaon near Guwahati. Assam has always enjoyed the highest reputation for her arts and crafts associated with her cottage industries. Cottage industries include handloom, sericulture, cane and bamboo articles, carpentry, brass and bell-metal crafts. Assam produces varieties of silk, Endi, Muga, Tassar, etc. Muga silk is produced only in Assam in the world. Irrigation and Power The major power stations are Chandrapur Thermal Project, Namrup Thermal Project and a few Mobile Gas Turbine Units along with a mini hydro-electric project. Revitalising the Thermal Power Station of Bongaigaon and completing the Karbi-Langpi Project will boost the power supply in the State. Approval has been received for Tipaimukh Dam Project. TransportRoads: The total length of roads in the State was 34,000 km which includes 2,038 km of National Highways. The construction of 160 km of barbed wire fencing and 27 km of the border road along the Indo-Bangladesh International have been completed.Railways:The length of railway tract in Assam is 2,391.76 km comprising 1,061.29 km under broad-gauge and 1,330.47 km under meter-gauge lines. Aviation :The regular civil air services are operating from Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport (Guwahati), Salonibari (Tezpur), Mohanbari (Dibrugarh), Kumbhirgram (Silchar), Rawriah (Jorhat) and Silonibari (North Lakhimpur). FESTIVALS Assam has an exclusive range of colourful festivals. Bihu is the chief festival celebrated on the three occasions. Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu marks the advent of the cropping season and it also ushers in the Assamese New Year. Bhogali Bihu or Magh Bihu is the harvest festival and Kati Bihu or Kongali Bihu coming in autumn is a simple affair. Religion accounts for a large variety of festivals. Vaishnavites observe birth and death anniversaries of prominent Vaishnava saints through day-long singing of hymns and staging of Bhaonas (theatrical performances in traditional style). Ambubachi in Kamakhya shrine, Sivaratri Mela at Umananda and other places near Siva temples, Durga Puja , Diwali, Dol-Jatra , Id, Christmas, Ashokastami Mela, Rash Mela, Parasuram Mela are other religious festivals. TOURISM Important places of tourism in and around Guwahati are Kamakhya temple, Umananda (Peacock Island), Navagraha (temple of nine planets), Basistha Ashram, Dolgobinda, Gandhi Mandap, State Zoo, State Museum, Sukreswar temple, Gita Mandir, Madan Kamdev temple, a magnificent archaeological place of interest, and Saraighat bridge. Other places of tourist interest in the State are: Kaziranga National Park (famous for one horned rhino), Manas Tiger Project, Pobi-tora and Orang (wildlife sanctuaries), Sibsagar (Shiv Temple-Rangghar-Karengghar), Tezpur (Bhairavi temple and scenic beauty), Bhalukpung (Angling), Haflong (health resort with Jatinga hills), Majuli (largest river island in the world), Chandubi lake (picnic spot), Hajo (meeting point of Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam), Batadrava (birth place of great Vaishnava saint Sankaradeva) and Sualkuchi (famous for silk industry).
Bihar Area : 94,163 sq km Population : 82,878,796 Capital : Patna Principal Languages : Hindi History and Geography Bihar finds mention in the Vedas, Puranas , epics, etc., and was the main scene of activities of Buddha, and 24 Jain Tirthankars. Great rulers of the State before the Christian era were Bimbisar, Udayin, who founded the city of Pataliputra. Chandragupta Maurya and Emperor Ashoka and Maurya dynasty, the Sungs and the Kanvas. Then came the Kushan rulers followed by Chandragupta Vikramaditya of the Gupta dynasty. Muslim rulers made in-roads into the territory during medieval period. The first conqueror of Bihar was Mohammed- bin-Bakhtiar Khalji. The Tughluqs and then the Mughals followed the Khaljis. One of the major states of the Indian Union, Bihar is bounded on the north by Nepal, on the east by West Bengal, on west by Uttar Pradesh and on the south by Jharkhand. Bihar has a number of rivers, the most important of which is the Ganga. The other rivers are the Sone, Poonpoon, Falgu, Karmanasa, Durgawati, Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghara, etc. AgricultureBihar has a total geographical area of about 93.60 lakh hectare, out of which only 56.03 lakh hectare is the net cultivated area and gross cultivated area being 79.46 lakh hectare. About 33.51 lakh hectare net area and 43.86 lakh hectare gross area receive irrigation from different sources. Principal food crops are paddy, wheat, maize and pulses. Main cash crops are sugarcane, potato, tobacco, oilseeds, onion, chillies, jute and mesta. Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 sq km, which is 7.1 per cent of its geographical area. IndustriesMajor Industries are: Railway Wagon Plants of Bharat Wagon Limited at Muzaffarpur and Mokamah; Oil Refinery of Indian Oil Corporation at Barauni; Fertilizer Manufacturing Plant of Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited (HPCL) at Barauni and Pyrites Phosphates & Chemicals Limited (PPCL) at Amjhor; Cotton Spinning Mills at Siwan, Pandaul, Bhagalpur, Mokamah and Gaya; 13 sugar mills in private sector and 15 in the public sector located in south and north Bihar with a total crushing capacity of 45,000 TPD. In addition, distilleries at Gopalganj, West Champaran, Bhagalpur and Riga (in Sitamarhi district); Finished Leather Industry in West Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Barauni; Jute Mills at Katihar and Samastipur; Medicine Manufacturing Unit at Hajipur; Food Processing Units as also Vanaspati Manufacturing Units at Aurangabad and Patna; besides Kalyanpur Cement Limited at Banjari, are notable in the industrial map of Bihar. TransportRoads:Bihar has around 13,000 km of pucca roads including around 2,500 km of national highways and roughly 11,000 km of state highways and major district roads. Railways:Bihar has a fairly good railway network. Communication in north Bihar is difficult as there is only one railway bridge at Mokamah. A few railway routes connecting important places like Muzaffarpur-Samastipur-Barauni-Katihar and Muzaffarpur-Chapra-Siwan have been converted into broad gauge. The main rail junctions are at Patna, Gaya, Muzaffarpur, Katihar and Samastipur, etc. Aviation:There is an international airport at Patna, besides landing grounds in all major districts of the State. Tourist Centres Important places of tourist interest are Rajgir, Nalanda, Vaishali, Pawapuri (where Lord Mahavira breathed his last and attained Nirvana ), Bodh Gaya, Vikramshila (ruins of Buddhist University of higher learning), Gaya, Patna (ancient city of Patliputra), Sasaram (tomb of Shershah Suri) and Madhubani (known for famous Madhubani Paintings). Chhattisgarh
Area : 1,36,034 sq km Population : 20,795,956 Capital : Raipur Principal Languages : Hindi History and Geography Chhattisgarh, carved out of Madhya Pradesh came into being on 1 November 2000 as the 26th State of the Union. It fulfills the long-cherished demand of the tribal people. In ancient times the region was known as Dakshin-Kausal. This finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata also. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1791 AD. With the advent of Britishers in 1854, Raipur gained prominence instead of capital Ratanpur. In 1904, Sambalpur was transferred to Orissa and estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh. Chhattisgarh is bounded by southern Jharkhand and Orissa in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the west, Uttar Pradesh and western Jharkhand in the north and Andhra Pradesh in the south. Areawise Chhattisgarh is the ninth largest state and population-wise it is seventeenth state of the nation. Agriculture Agriculture and allied activities account for nearly 80 per cent of the work force in the state. Out of the geographical area of 13,787 thousand hectares, gross cropped area is 4,799 thousand hectares, which constitutes about 35 per cent of the total geographical area. Kharif is the main cropping season which accounts for about 4,640 thousand hectares. Rice is the predominant crop of the state; other important crops are Maize, Wheat, Niger, Groundnut and Pulses. The state has one of the biggest collections of Rice Germplasm, which has approximately 21,000 entries. Horticulture crops are grown in an area of about 123 thousand hectares. States innovative, “Rajiv Kisan Mitan” programme for encouraging farmers, to move away from unviable varieties of paddy to commercially viable varieties of paddy and other crops is launched just two years ago and now over 5.18 lakh hectares of land is under this diversification programme. Forest occupies about 6,247 thousand hectares which constitutes about 45 per cent of the total geographical area. The state has constituted 3 national parks and 10 wild life sanctuaries to conserve wild life in general and endangered species in particular. IndustryChhattisgarh is generously bestowed with natural resources like forests, minerals and surface water. Till yesteryears—the State has undergone a radical change and is thriving with industrial activities now. Chhattisgarh is producing approximately 20 per cent of steel and 15 per cent in the country. Many Government of India undertakings like Bhilai Steel Plant, National Mineral Development Corporation, South-Eastern Coal Field Limited, NTPC and a number of large cement plants belonging to groups like ACC, Gujarat Ambuja, Grasim, L&T, CCI and La-farge of France and many steel projects (sponge iron/pig iron route) in private sector are also under different stages of implementation. There are approximately 130 steel re-rolling mills, a number of mini steel plants, ferro-alloy units, steel/cast iron casting units, engineering and fabrication units apart from large number of agro based and food processing, chemical, plastic, constructions material, forest produce based units. Strategically located in central India, Chhattisgarh is able to supply power to units for all the time. There are huge coal reserves (87 per cent of India) in the state, offering cheap pithead power generation opportunities and has potential to produce up to 50,000 MW of power. NTPC is now installing a new power generation unit, largest ever, by it in Bilaspur District. NTPC has started construction on its 2,640 MW Super Thermal plant in Sipat and another 600 MW plant in Korba. Government of Gujarat is putting up a 500 MW generation plant in Korba. Several other states are also interested in installing plants here. Private sector MOUs for more than 1,500 MW and more projects are in the pipeline. Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corp. Ltd., Raipur has developed, maintained and is managing approximately an area of 3,112 hectares of industrial land. More than 830 industries with investment of more than Rs 16,510 million providing direct employment to 25,000 persons have been setup on the land developed by this corporation. Rani Durgavati Industrial Area-Anjani Pendra Road, Cycle Complex-Siltara is established in Raipur District, and the I.T. Park has been established by CHiPS. Information Technology E-Governance in Chhattisgarh is oriented towards ensuring people's access to government, which makes the government even more responsive and transparent. CHiPs (Chhattisgarh Infotech and biotech Promotion Society) has been setup with a high powered governing council under the Chief Minister's chairperson ship, to act as a prime mover for IT and Biotechnology in the state. The largest secondary school level IT programme “Indira Soochna Shakti” is achieving its target. All citizen services of e-governance are under one umbrella project called CHOICE (Chhattisgarh Online Information for Citizen Empowerment). BHUIYAN programme (Bhuiyan means land in Chhattisgarhi) under CHOICE is a networked land records service accessible from “virtual” Tehsil offices, within easy reach of villagers on an anytime-anywhere basis. Mineral Resources Chhattisgarh hosts a wide variety of minerals found in igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic terrains. Large deposits of coal, iron ore, Limestone, Bauxite, Dolomite and Tin ore are located in several parts of the state. Lately, Diamondiferous Kimberlites identified in Raipur district are likely to yield substantial quantity of Diamonds. Medium to small deposits of gold, base metals, quartzite, soap stone, Fluroite, Corrundum, Graphite, Lepidolite, Amblygonite of workable size are also likely to graduate to the category of large deposits after prospecting. Twenty per cent of the country's steel and cement is produced in the State. It is the only tin-ore producing state in the country. The mineral resources have immense potential for large investment in mining, setting of mineral based industries and generating employment. Chhattisgarh is nestling atop the world's largest Kimberlite area. Eight blocks have been demarcated for diamond exploration. Apart from diamond, four blocks of gold exploration and five blocks for base metal investigation have been demarcated. Irrigation and Power When the state came into being, the total irrigation capacity was 13.28 lakh hectares (as on 1 November 2000). After that, 1.25 lakh hectare additional capacity was created within 2 years and nine months, by mobilising resources of various departments and public participation, construction of 50,000 debris on the farmer's land, a total of 5 lakh hectare additional capacity had been created. Major completed projects are Tandula, Kodar and Pairy. Hasdev, Mahanadi Reservoir Project, Sondhur and Jonk are some of the other projects. The total capacity of State Electricity Board is 1,381.05 MW, out of which the thermal power share is 1,260 MW and rest is hydel power. The state government has introduced a very pro-active power policy under which the public sector represented by the Chhattisgarh state electricity board, as well as the private sector have well defined roles to play. Around 93 per cent of 19,720 inhabited villages of Chhattisgarh have been electrified. TransportRoads: The total length of the roads in the State is 35,388.54 km. The length of the national highways is 1,827.30 km, state highways are 3,611 km, district roads are 2,118 km and rural roads are 27,566 km. Railways: Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Raigarh and Korba are important railway stations. Total railway route length is 1,053 km. New railway zone in Bilaspur started functioning from 1 April 2003. Airlines: Raipur is connected with New Delhi, Nagpur, Mumbai and Bhubaneswar by daily flights. Bilaspur, Bhilai, Raigarh, Jagdalpur, Ambikapur, Korba, Jashpurnagar and Rajnandgaon are having airstrips. FestivalsChhattisgarh is famous for its festivals. Pola, Nawakhai, Dussehara, Deepawali, Holi, Govardhan Pooja are celebrated with gaiety and festivity. Tourist Centres Chhattisgarh situated in the heart of India, is endowed with rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The State is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, waterfalls, caves, rock paintings, and hill plateaus. Chhattisgarh offers the tourists “A Destination with a Difference”. Bastar, with its unique cultural and ecological identity, will come as a breath of fresh air. Chitrakote Falls, a spot where the river Indravati has an abrupt fall of 96 ft, which are like horse shoe curve, are often compared to the Niagara falls. Tirathgarh Falls, the picturesque waterfall of Kanger river cascades down from a height of 100 ft in the form of steps. Other important destinations are the Keshkal valley, Kangerghat National Park, Kailash caves and Kutumbsar caves, which are rich in natural beauty. In Bilaspur, Mahamaya temple at Ratanpur, Khutaghat waterfall, Dindneswari Devi temple of Mallahar and the Achanakmar sanctuary, Udanti sanctuary near Raipur, Pali and Kendai waterfall of Korba district are important places of tourist interest. The Sabari temple of Kharod Janjgir Champa, Nar Narayan temple of Sivarinarayan, Vishnu temple of Janjgir are important religious places. The tourism policy is focused on creating a unique image for the State and to position it as an attractive destination for both domestic as well as foreign tourists. Some major objectives of this policy are: To promote economically, culturally and ecologically sustainable tourism in the State; encourage and promote private sector initiatives in developing tourism-related infrastructure; limit the role of Government to that of facilitator and provider of public goods; increase the contribution of tourism to the economic development of interrelated sectors. The state has set up a State Tourism Promoting Board as the nodal agency for translation of the policy into action for the sustained development of the sector.
Area : 3,702 sq km Population : 1,343,998 Capital : Panaji Principal Languages : Konkani and Marathi History and Geography Goa, known in the bygone days as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Gomantak, etc., abounds in a rich historical heritage. Early history of Goa is obscure. In the first century of the Christian era, Goa was a part of the Satavahana Empire, followed by the Kadamba, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed, the Chalukyas and the Silharas. The empire of the Yadavas by the end of the 14th century was displaced by the Khiljis of Delhi and thus Muslim rule came to Goa. After the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco-da-Gama in 1498, many Portuguese expeditions came to India. In 1510, Alfonso de Albuquerque with the help of the emperor of Vijayanagar attacked and captured Goa. With the arrival of the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier in 1542, proselytisation began in Goa. However, the Portuguese continued to rule over the territory except for an interlude during the latter half of the 17th century when Shivaji conquered a few areas in and around Goa. Even after India's independence, Goa continued to be in the hands of the Portuguese. However, they could not fulfill the aspirations of the Goan people and ultimately on 19 December 1961, Goa was liberated and made a composite union territory with Daman and Diu. On 30 May 1987, Goa was conferred statehood and Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory. Goa is situated on the western coast of the Indian Peninsula. On its north runs the Terekhol River, which separates Goa from Maharashtra and on the south lies North Canara district of Karnataka. On the east lie the Western Ghats and in the west the Arabian Sea. Panaji, Margao, Vasco, Mapusa and Ponda are the main towns of Goa. AgricultureRice is the main food crop. Pulses, ragi and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut, cashewnut, arecanut, sugarcane and fruits like pineapple, mango and banana. The State has a rich forest cover of more than 1,424 sq km. Irrigation and Power With the commissioning of dams like Selaulim and Anjunem and other minor irrigation projects, area under irrigation is rising steadily. Total irrigation potential created by these projects is 43,000 hectares. All villages have been electrified leading to hundred percent coverage. Industry and Minerals The State has 5,765 small-scale industrial units with a total investment of Rs 219.09 crore and employment opportunities for 39,432 persons, in large and medium sector, 140 units with an investment of Rs 1,555.65 crore employing 18,923 persons. There are 16 industrial estates besides a new electronic city coming up in the State. Mineral products are ferro-manganese, bauxite and iron ore contributing substantially to the economy of the State through exports. TransportRoads: Of the motorable roads, national highway constitutes 224 km, state highways 232 km and district roads 815 km. Railways: Goa is linked with Mumbai, Mangalore and Thiruvananthapuram through the Konkan Railway, which has introduced several fast trains on these lines. Vasco da Gama is connected with Bangalore and Belgaum on the South Central Railway, presently for goods traffic only. Aviation: Mumbai, Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram, Cochin, Chennai, Agati and Bangalore are linked with Dabolim through regular Airlines services. Ports: Mormugao is the major port in the State. Mormugao handles cargo vessels. Minor ports are located at Panaji, Tiracol, Chapora Betul and Talpona, out of which Panaji is the main operative port. One offshore berth at Panaji has also been commissioned. Tourist Centres Important tourist centres are Colva, Calangute, Vagator, Baga, Harmal, Anjuna and Miramar beaches; Basilica of Bom Jesus and Se Cathedral churches at Old Goa; Kavlem, Mardol, Mangueshi, Bandora temples; Aguada, Terekhol, Chapora and Cabo de Rama Forts; Dudhsagar and Harvalem Waterfalls and Mayem Lake Resort. The State has rich wildlife sanctuaries, viz., Bondla, Cotigao, Molem and Dr Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary at Chorao covering an area of 354 sq km. Gujarat Area : 1,96,024 sq km Population : 50,671,017 Capital : Gandhinagar Principal Languages : Gujarati History and Geography The history of Gujarat goes back to 2000 BC. It is believed that Lord Krishna left Mathura to settle on the west coast of Saurashtra, which later came to be known as Dwarka, the gateway. Later, it saw various kingdoms: Mauryas, Guptas, Pratiharas and others. It was with Chalukya (Solankis) that Gujarat witnessed progress and prosperity. In spite of the plundering of Mahmud Ghazni, the Chalukya kings were able to maintain general prosperity and well-being of the State. After this glorious respite, Gujarat faced troubled times under the Muslims, Marathas and the British rule. Before Independence, the present territories of Gujarat used to be in two parts, the British and the Princely territories. With the re-organisation of the States, the Union of the States of Saurashtra and the Union Territory of Kachchh along with the former British, Gujarat became a part of the biggest bilingual State of Bombay. The present State of Gujarat came into being on May, 1960. It is situated on the west coast of India. The state is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Pakistan and Rajasthan in the north and north-east respectively, Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Maharashtra in the south. AgricultureGujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton and groundnut in the country and provides inputs for important industries like textiles, oil and soap. Other important cash crops are isabgol , paddy, wheat and bajra . Forest species available in Gujarat are teak, khair, sadad, haldariyo and manual bamboos. IndustryThe industrial structure in the State has been gradually diversifying with the development of industries like chemicals, petrochemicals, fertilizers, engineering, electronics, etc. The number of registered working factories in the State were 21,536 (Provisional) at the end of 2004 with the average daily employment to 9.27 lakh. The number of Small-Scale industrial units in the State was 2.99 lakh at the end of March 2005. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) has been assigned the role of developing industrial estateswith infrastructure facilities. At the end of December 2005 GIDC had set up 237 industrial estates.Irrigation and Power The total irrigation potential through surface water as well as ground water has been assessed at 64.88 lakh hectares including 17.92 lakh hectares through Sardar Sarovar ( Narmada ) Project. The total irrigation potential created up to June 2005 is worked out to 40.34 lakh hectares. The maximum utilisation has been estimated at 36.33 lakh hectares up to June 2005The total installed capacity for the state including central sector project has increased to 8763 MW as on 31 March 2005. As per new definition of villages, 17,823 villages are feasible for electrification against the total number of 18056 inhabited villages in the State.TransportRoads: The total length of road (except municipal roads) is around 74,000 km and the length of surfaced roads is around 70,800 km. Aviation: The main airport of Gujarat at Ahmedabad is connected with Mumbai, Delhi and other cities by daily services. Ahmedabad airport has now got the status of an International Airport. Other airports are Vadodara, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Surat, Jamnagar, Kandla, Keshod, Porbandar and Rajkot. Ports: Gujarat has 40 ports of which Kandla is a major port. The intermediate and minor ports of Gujarat handled a total cargo of 971.28 lakh tonnes whereas Kandla port handled cargo of 415.51 lakh tonnes during 2004-05. FestivalsTarnetar fair is held at village Tarnetar in the honour of Lord Shiva on the 4th, 5th and 6th days of the bright half of the month of Bhadrapada (August/September). Madhavrai fair at Madhavpur near Porbandar is, held to celebrate the marriage by elopement of Lord Krishna and Rukmani, on the ninth day of the bright half of the month of Chaitra (March/April). Ambaji fair dedicated to Amba, mother goddess is held in Banaskantha district. The biggest annual fair, Janmashtami the birthday of Lord Krishna is celebrated at Dwarka and Dakor with great enthusiasm. Other festivals are Makar-Sankranti, Navratri, Dangi darbar, Shamlaji fair, Bhavnath fair, etc. Tourist Centres Religious spots like Dwarka, Somnath, Palitana, Pavagadh, Ambaji, Bhadreshwar, Shamlaji, Taranga and Girnar; Porbandar, birth place of Mahatma Gandhi, places of memorable monuments of architectural and, archaeological surprises like Patan, Siddhpur Ghurnli, Dabhoi, Vadnagar, Modhera, Lothal and Ahmedabad; beautiful beaches like Ahmadpur-Mandvi, Chorwad, Ubharat and Tithal; the hill station Saputara; lion sanctuary of Gir Forest and wild ass sanctuary in Kachchh area are major tourist attractions in the State.
Area : 44,212 sq km Population : 21,144,564 Capital : Chandigarh Principal Languages : Hindi History and Geography Haryana has a proud history going back to the Vedic Age. The state was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which has given the name Bharat to India. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata . Kurukshetra, the scene of the epic battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana. The state continued to play a leading part in the history of India till the advent of the Muslims and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India. Thereafter, Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi and practically remained anonymous till the First War of India's Independence in 1857. When the rebellion was crushed and the British administration was re-established, the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of the Haryana region were deprived of their territories. Their territories were either merged with the British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. Haryana thus became a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966, Haryana was made into a full-fledged state. The state is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana. AgricultureAgriculture is the mainstay of more than 75 per cent population in Haryana. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra , maize, barley and pulses, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds and potato are the major crops of the state. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds. New crops like sunflower, soyabean and fruits and vegetables are also being encouraged. Efforts are being made to encourage intensive and extensive farming in the state. Information Technology In view of the importance of Information Technology in the globalisation process throughout the world, the State Government has formulated an IT Policy which provides several; incentives for IT and ITES/BPO Industry. Government has also recently announced a policy for Technology Parks, which gives considerable flexibility for setting up Technology Parks and IT Corridors. The objective of this policy is also to promote convergence of Information Technology with frontier technologies like Nano Technology, Bio Technology, Mobile Computing and Robotics, etc. Further, Gurgaon has been developed as a preferred investment destination for both IT and ITES/BPO companies. Now, Gurgaon has become the home of the corporate world in India. The State Government is planning to set up Hi-Tech Habitat Centre in the Electronic City, Gurgaon for IT/ITES/BPO companies, which would provide world-class facilities. Besides Gurgaon, the state also intends to develop other areas in NCR region, such as those falling alongside Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Express Highway and Faridabad, as satellites of Gurgaon-Manesar Mega IT Hub. The software exports from Haryana during 2004-05 were Rs. 7,300 crore and during the last year, it has increased by 34 per cent as compared to previous year.The State of Haryana is an aspiring leader in E-Governance as per the EGovernance readiness index of the country. Haryana not only aspires to attain leadership position but also is going ahead with e-Governance initiatives by establishing State Wide Area Network (SWAN). The SWAN is being set up connecting the State Headquarters and District Headquarters and all Block HQ's to respective District HQ's. SWAN also envisages village connectivity through wireless. This shall enable transparency, efficiency and accountablegovernance that shall throw up opportunities and provide access to the citizens-centric services. E-Disha, a single point multi-service delivery system for providing citizen-centric services has been launched in 5 districts and is being launched in other districts of the State. The Local Area Networks (LAN) have been established at major buildings and a number of departments at State and District level. The Haryana State Data Centre has been established with the assistance of NIC with 1000 GB storage capacity. Under the Computer Training Programme, more than 15000 government Employees have been trained.IndustryHaryana has a large industrial base having more than 1,271 large and medium and 80,000 Small Scale Units in the State. Haryana is the largest producer of passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instruments, etc. Haryana is the largest exporter of Basmati rice to the overseas market. Panipat handlooms and carpets are known all over the world besides its famous Pachranga Aachar (pickles). Since July 1991, 3439 Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandum (IEMs) were filed and out of these 1916 IEMs were implemented with Capital Investment of Rs 16,030 crore and generating employment for 3,21,959 persons. As a result of the new Industrial Policy, State has received about 30 proposals for setting up of SEZ's in the State which has envisaged an investment of Rs. 1.5 lakh crorein the industrial infrastructure. These projects on implementation would create several thousand crore investment in the industrial sector besides, generating huge employment. State is developing industrial model township at Faridabad, Rohtak and Jagadhari besides expansion of IMT Manesar in Gurgaon. Petrochemical Hub is coming up with investment of Rs. 30,000 crore at Panipat. Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway is being developed with investment of Rs. 2000 crore. This will create a large number of economic hubs all along the expressway generating new investment opportunities in the industrial and service sector. The State is also fully exploring the potential of economic development by developing new industrial estates at Bahadurgarh, Rohtak as well as to expand industrial infrastructure in Sonipat, Kundli, Rai and Barhi. Many proposals for setting up new industrial estates at different locations particularly in Ambala, Saha, Yamuna Nagar, Barwala, Karnal, Rohtak and Kaithal are under consideration with the State Government.There is a great demand from industries for allotment of industrial land in the industrial estates developed by the HSIDC and HUDA. During this period of the present Government, 25 new industrial units in the large and medium sectors and 1000 new small-scale industrial units with investment of Rs. 600 crore have been set up generating direct employment for more than 11,000 persons. Besides, a large number of industrial units have undergone expansion and as a result of it fresh investment of more than Rs. 6000 crore has been created. Recently, Indian Oil Corporation has set up Paraxylene/PTA project at Panipat with an investment of about Rs. 4000 crore. Maruti Udyog Hero Honda and many other automobile ancillaries are undergoing expansion programme with investment of about Rs. 10,000 crore. At present, investment proposals of about Rs. 20,000 crore are under implementation in the Industrial Sector. Similarly, new investment in IT and Textile sector particularly the readymade garment is coming up in the State.IrrigationHaryana is a beneficiary of the multi purpose project in Sutlej and Beas, sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan. Major irrigation projects are western Yamuna Canal, Bhakra Canal and Gurgaon Canal System. Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes. It is a new endeavour that gave practical shape to lift-irrigation for the first time in India. The Jui, Siwani, Loharu and Jawahar Lal Nehru Lift irrigation schemes have helped to carry irrigation water against gravity flow to arid areas. Sprinkler and drip irrigation have been introduced in the highly undulating and sandy tracks of Haryana.Construction work of Hathni Kund barrage at a cost of Rs 220 crore have been completed. Haryana and Uttar Pradesh would get additional water for irrigation purposes from the barrage and Delhi would get additional water for drinking. PowerHaryana became the first State in the country to achieve 100 per cent rural electrification in 1970. Starting with 20,000 tubewells in 1966 there were 4.12 lakh tubewells in March 2006. The average power availability during 2005-06 was 621.79 lakh units a day. The number of consumers in 2005-06 were 40 lakh. The installed generation capacity as on 31 March 2006 was 4033 MW.TransportRoads: In Haryana, all villages stand connected with metalled roads. The length of roads in the State is 31,010 km. Railways: Ambala, Panipat and Jakhal are important railway stations. There is a railway workshop at Jagadhari. Aviation: There are civil aerodromes at Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul. Tourist Centres Haryana has a network of 46 Tourist Complexes in the State. Some of the important tourist complexes are: Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat), Chakravarty Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodel), Shama (Gurgaon), Jungle Babbler (Dharuhere), Gauriyya (Bahadurgarh), Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens (Pinjore). Surajkund and Badkhal Lake near Delhi, Sultanpur bird sanctuary (Sultanpur, Gurgaon) and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The Surajkund Crafts Mela of International fame is held every year in the month of February. Himachal Pradesh
Area : 55,673 sq km Population : 6,077,900 Capital : Shimla Principal Languages : Hindi & Pahari HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Himachal situated in the heart of the Western Himalya, identified as “Dev Bhumi” is believed to be the abode of God and Goddesses. The entire State is punctuated with stone as well as wood temples. The rich culture and traditions has made Himachal unique in itself. The shadowy valleys,rugged crags,glaciers and gigantic pines and roaring rivers and exquisite flora and fauna composes the symphony that is for ever Himachal.The north-eastern part of the State is decorated with snow-covered, silver-headed mountains, halcyon lakes and green stretches of prairies. The State is rich in flora and fauna. In the north it is contiguous to Jammu and Kashmir, and in the south-east, it adjoins the hilly areas of Uttar Pradesh. In the south and on the western side, the territory is bordered by Haryana and Punjab respectively, whereas on the east it borders Tibet. The State came into being as a union territory in April 1948, as a result of integration of 30 princely states spread over 27,000 sq km. In 1954, when another 'C' class State of Bilaspur merged with Himachal Pradesh, its area increased to 28,241 sq km. The position remained unchanged till 1966, when on reorganisation of the states, the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with the state increasing its size to 55,673 sq km. Proportionately, the population also increased from 1.4 million to 2.8 million, now standing at 60,77,248 according to census 2001. AGRICULTURE Agriculture being the main occupation of the people of Himachal Pradesh has an important role in the economy of the State. It provides direct employment to about 71 per cent of the main working population. Income from the agriculture and allied sector accounts for nearly 22.5 per cent of the total State Domestic Product. Out of the total geographical area of 55.673 lakh hectares, the area of operational holding is about 9.99 lakh hectares owned by 8.63 lakh farmers. The marginal and small farmers constitute 84.5 per cent of the total land holdings. The cultivated area in the State is only 10.4 per cent. About 80 per cent of the area is rain-fed. Under the diversification approach, major emphasis is being laid on the production of off-season vegetables, quality vegetable seeds, potato and ginger besides soybean, oilseeds and pulses. A project-based approach has been adopted to increase vegetable production. At present, about 41,500 hectare area is under vegetable production with production level of 7.85 lakh tonne. Loanee and non-loanee farmers have been covered and initially maize, rice, wheat, barley and potato crops have been brought under the purview of the scheme. To educate the farmers about the latest technical know-how, the extensive network in the State has been energised for achieving accelerated growth in Agriculture, H.R.D. and water conservation, with proper natural resources management been accordingly prioritised. HORTICULTURE Nature has endowed Himachal Pradesh with a wide range of agro-climatic conditions, which have helped the farmers to cultivate a large variety of fruits ranging from temperate to sub-tropical. The main fruits under cultivation are apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot nut fruit, citrus fruits mango, litchi, guava and strawberry, etc. The total area under fruit cultivation, which was only 792 hectare in 1950, has increased to more than 2 lakh hectares. Similarly, the fruit production has also increased from 1200 MT in 1950 to 6.92 lakh tonnes in 2005. The target for fruit production for year 2005-2006 has been fixed 7 lakh tonnes. Horticulture generates gross domestic income of about Rs. 1000 crore annually.The Horticulture Technology Mission for the integrated development of horticulture is being implemented with a total outlay of Rs. 80 crore during the tenth five-year plan period. This Mission is based on the “end to end approach” taking into account the entire gamut of horticulture development with all backward and forward linkages in holistic manner. Under this scheme four centres of excellence are being created in different Agro-Climatic Zones with common facilities like water harvesting, vermicompost, greenhouses, organicfarming and farm mechanisation.ROADS Roads are the lifeline and major means of communication in the predominantly hilly State of Himachal Pradesh. The tremendous potential inherent in various fields in Himachal Pradesh could not be exploited for economic growth in the past due to lack of means of communication. Out of its 55,673 km area, 36,700 km is inhabited and its 16,807 inhabited villages are scattered over slopes of numerous hill ranges and valleys. When the Pradesh came into existence in 1948, there were 288 km of roads, which has gone up to 23,788 km. The State has 8 National Highways having a total road length of 1,235 km. HYDRO-POWER GENERATION Himachal Pradesh has immense hydro-potential in its five river basins. Chenab, Rabi, Beas, Satluj and Yamuna which emanates from the western Himalayas pass through the State. The strategy of development in the power sector comprises of expeditions actualisation of the Hydro Electric Potential and introduction of power sector reforms to bring efficiency in the sector and provide high quality power to the consumers at reasonable rates besides availability of abundant power to industrial and tourism sectors. The total identified potential in the State stands at 21000 M.W which is one fourth of India’s total hydro-power potential. Presently out of this 6,067 M.W has already been harnessed by various agencies. Projects aggregating to 7,602 M.W are under execution. It is on the cards that State will have about 11,000 M.W actualised potential by the end of 11th Plan.There is no denying the fact that the way the Government has embarked upon an accelerated Power Development Programme. The State is speedily moving towards a “Power State” of the Country. All the census villages in the State have been electrified and now left out hamlets are being covered.INDUSTRIAL GROWTHIndustrial development has been given big boost in the State. Pollution free environment, abundant availability of power and rapidly developing infrastructure, peaceful atmosphere responsive and transparent administration are some of the added attractions and advantages that the entrepreneurs get in Himachal Pradesh. 315 large and medium and about 32,709 small-scale industrial units with an investment of about Rs. 4255.78 crore had been set up in the state generating employment for 1.86 lakh persons. The sector iscontributing 15 per cent to the State Domestic Product and the annual turnover on this account is about Rs. 6000 crore.The State has formulated a new Industrial Policy and Incentive Rules- 2004, which provides attractive packages to the entrepreneurs for setting up of Industrial Units in the State. 42 industrial areas and 15 Industrial Estates with all basic amenities have been developed in the State.With a view to provide umbrella support to existing and new ventures, the State government has set up a State Level Single Window Clearance and Monitoring Authority ( SLSWCMA) in Himachal Pradesh under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister to give permission to the entrepreneurs to set up industrial units in the State. This also discuss and solve all industry related and inter-departmental issues, monitor and review the progress of units already approved and proposed to be set up. This Authority is also focusing its attention on the development of quality infrastructure. Presently 7040 industrial units with an investment of about Rs.18045.30 crore envisagingemployment to about 2.52 lakh persons have been approved. A proposal is also underway of setting up Special Economic Zone in Kangra,Una and other districts with an estimated cost of Rs.5000 crore.The Central Government has also given attractive package for setting up of Industrial Units which also includes Income Tax Holidays. The State Government is also giving several attractive incentives including exemptions in excise duty.INDUSTRY Himachal Pradesh has made significant progress in the field of industrialisation in the past few years. There are 196 large and medium and about 30,839 small-scale industrial units in the state. This sector is contributing around 14 per cent to the State Domestic Product. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY The Government of Himachal Pradesh has developed an IT Vision-2010 in collaboration with NASSCOM to make Himachal Pradesh an IT destination. Under the IT policy, it has been decided to accord the status of Industry to all IT projects, including IT related services and educational institutions. As such, all the incentives available to Industry under the presently applicable Industrial Policy will also be made available to the IT units in the State. The use of IT in governance is aimed at having SMART (Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent) government. The State Government official website at “” is a web portal providing citizen centric services to the citizens and it has got interfaces for getting inputs from the grass root level. The State Government is also in the process of creating an H.P. State Wide Area Network (HIM SWAN), which will also be connected to the Internet. In the Phase-I of HIMSWAN, H.P. Secretariat Local Area Network was established with a provision to provide LAN connectivity to every third person. All IT units in the State have been given Income Tax holiday up to 2007. Information Technology Park is proposed to be set up in the State in Solan district.BIO-TECHNOLOGY Keeping in view the importance of bio-technology, a separate Department of Bio-technology has been set up and the State's own Biotechnology Policy has been formulated. The Government proposes to give sales tax holiday to all Bio-Technical Units in the state up to 2012. Income Tax Holiday for the first 5 years and 30 per cent rebate thereafter and Central Excise Exemption 100 per cent for the first 10 years. IRRIGATION AND WATER SUPPLYNet sown area in the State was 5.83 lakh hectares till 2004.Villages have been provided the facility of drinking water, over 13,000 hand pumps have been installed in the State so far. For better reform in water supply and irrigation sector, the State Government has taken up a WASH project with the total cost of Rs. 339 crore for irrigation as well as for drinking water supply schemes with Gesellschaft for Technische Zuoammeuorbeit (GTZ).Rs. 40 crore new drinking Water Supply Scheme has been launched for Shimla town. The Government of India has approved 471 schemes of Rs.7.33 crore under Swajal Dhara Programme. 49 small-scale irrigation schemes of Rs. 16.31 crore have been sanctioned by Centre Government to supplement the efforts of State to meet out irrigation and drinking water supply to the people.FORESTRYThe total geographical area of the state is 55,673 sq km. As per record, the total forest area is 37,033 sq. km. Out of this, 16,376 sq. km. area is not fit for tree growth comprising alpine pastures, area under permanent snow, etc. The cultivable recorded forest area is only 20,657 sq. km. Efforts are being taken to bring maximum area under green cover byimplementing State’s own projects, Government of India’s projects and also through external aided projects. The World Bank has also been sanctioned a Rs. 365 crore Integrated Watershed Development Project for the Mid Himalayas. 545 panchayats of 42 developmental blocks in 10 districts would be covered during the next six years.Tere are 2 National Parks and 32 wild life sanctuaries in the State. Total area under wild life sanctuaries is 5562 Km area under National Parks is 1440 Km and total area of Protected Area Network is 7002 Km.EDUCATION Education is important for over-all development of a State. Himachal Pradesh has emerged as the third best State in terms of over-all development and performance. The achievements of past three years have been lauded by India Today Survey and has been adjudged number one State in Primary Education and teacher student ratio. Himachal Pradesh has witnessed literacy revolutionas we are second only to Kerala in literacy. State has about 15,000 educational institutes, including three Universities, two Medical Colleges, one Engineering College in the Government Sector and a number of technical, professional and other educational institutions. The literacy percentage of the State according to 2001 Census is 77.13 which is much higher than the national average of 65.38. The State Government’s emphasis now is to ensure qualitative improvement in the education besides need based expansion. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan an ambitious project worth Rs. 532 crore is being evolved with main objective to achieve universalisation of elementary education with the sole aim to spread the light of knowledge to every nook and corner of the State.TOURISMTourism Industry in Himachal Pradesh has been given very high priority and the Government has developed an appropriate infrastructure for its development which includes provision of public utility services, roads, communication network, airports, transport facilities, water supply and civic amenities, etc. The State Government is poised to transform the State into “A Destination forAll Seasons and All Reasons”. The State Tourism Development Corporation contributing 10 per cent to the State exchequer. The corporation contributes more than Rs. 2.00 crore per annum by way of Sales tax, luxury tax and passenger tax. In the year-2005,Tourist arrival in the State were 7.1 million of which 2008 lakh were foreigners.The State has a rich treasure of places of pilgrimage and anthropological value. The State has also the pride of being the home to Rishies like Vyas,Prashar,Vashist, Markandey and Lamas, etc. Hot water springs,historic forts, natural and man-made lakes, shepherds grazing their flock are sources of immense pleasure and joy to the tourist.The State Government is aiming at promoting sustainable tourism,encouraging private sector to develop tourism related infrastructure in the State without disturbing the existing ecology and environment. The main thrust is an employment generation and promoting new concepts of tourism in the State. In order to increase the duration of the stay of the visitors/tourists a special emphases is being laid on the development of activities-based on tourism.For the promotion and development of the State from tourism point of view, the Government is focusing on the following areas : (1) History related tourism, (2) Identification of new areas/tourist destinations and promotion of Village tourism. (3) Improvement of Infrastructure, (4) Pilgrimage tourism. (5) Tribal tourism. (6) Eco-tourism. (7) Health tourism. (8) Promotion of Adventure tourism. (9) Wildlife tourism. (10) Cultural tourism. For the year 2005-06, there is an allotment of Rs.444.01 lakh for the development of tourism in the State. A sum of Rs.7.50 crore for the development of Kullu-Manali-Lahaul & Spiti and Leh Monastic circuit, Rs.21.00 crore for Kangra,Shimla and Sirmaur Circuit . Rs.16.00 crore for Bilaspur-Mandi and Chamba circuit and Rs.30.00 lakh for construction of tourism information centre at Manali has been sanctioned by Govt. of India, Rs.67.57 crore Central financial assistance received for 1545 projects in respect of festivals and other major events

Jammu & Kashmir Area : 2,22,236 sq km Population : 10,069,987 Capital : Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter) Principal Languages : Urdu, Dogri, Kashmiri, Pahari, Punjabi, Ladakhi, Balti, Gojri and Dadri History and Geography According to the most popular legend that is also recorded in Rajtarangani and Nilmat Purana, two most authoritative books, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi who drained it off the water, making it a beautiful abode. But geologists have their own theory, which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, Baramulla and thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir, the paradise on earth. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century B.C., which was later strengthened by Kanishka. Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century. The Valley regained freedom in 530 AD but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain Empire. After the decline of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the valley had its own rulers. There was a synthesis of Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Lalitaditya (697-738 AD) extended his rule up to Bengal in the east, Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the northwest and Tibet in the northeast. Considered as the most famous Hindu ruler, Lalitaditya was known for constructing beautiful buildings. Islam came to Kashmir during 13th and 14th century AD. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the most famous Muslim ruler, who came to Kashmir when the Hindu king Sinha Dev fled before the Tatar invasion. Later Chaks overran Haider Shah, son of Zain-ul-Abedin. They continued to rule till 1586 when Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the feeble control of the Mughal emperor of the time to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. The Valley was ruled by the Pathans for 67 years. The name of Jammu figures in the Mahabharata. Recent findings of Harappan remains and artifacts of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods at Akhnoor have added new dimensions to its ancient character. The land of Jammu was divided into 22 hill principalities. Raja Maldev, one of the Dogra rulers, conquered many territories to consolidate his kingdom. Raja Ranjit Dev ruled over Jammu from 1733 to 1782. His successors were weak, and thus Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed the territory to Punjab. He later handed over Jammu to Raja Gulab Singh, a scion of the old Dogra ruling family, who had grown powerful among Ranjit Singh's governors and had annexed almost the whole Jammu region. The State was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947, when the Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26 October, 1947. Jammu and Kashmir is situated between 32° -15' and 37° -05' north latitude and 72° -35' and 83° -20' longitude East. Geographically, the State can be divided into four zones. First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plain commonly known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Shivalik ranges, the third mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and the fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil. Geographically and culturally, the state has three district regions - Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. IndustryHandicrafts, being the traditional industry of the State, has been receiving priority attention of the Government in view of its large employment base and expert potential, paper-machie, wood carving, carpets, shawl-making, embroidery, etc., are among Kashmir's exquisite handicrafts. This industry, particularly the carpets earn substantial foreign exchange. The handicrafts sector provides employment to about 3.40 lakh artisans. The number of industrial units has gone up. The Rs 19 crore Export Promotion Industrial Park has been established at Kartholi, Jammu. A similar Park is being set up at Ompora, Budgam. Jammu has Urban Haats while a similar Haat is being commissioned in Srinagar. Software Technology park involving Rs 6.50 crore has been commissioned at Ragreth Srinagar.AgricultureAbout 80 per cent population of the State depends on agriculture. Paddy, wheat and maize are the major crops. Barley, bajra and jowar are cultivated in some parts. Gram is grown in Ladakh. The area under orchards is 242 lakh hectatres. The State produces fruit worth Rs 2,000 crore annually including export of walnuts worth Rs 120 crore. Jammu and Kashmir State has been declared as Agri Export Zone for apple and walnuts. Market Intervention Scheme has also been launched for improving quality fruit for export byensuing proper grading.The horticulture sector generates employment for 25 lakh people directly or indirectly.POWERTop priority has been accorded to power sector with great thrust to tap State's vast hydroelectric potential estimated at 20,000 MW.New policy announced to promote private investment in small hydroelectric projects up to 25 MW. Seven hydel projects with generating capacity of 2798 MW have been given to NHPC for execution. The State’s total requirement met by purchasing power from national grid.EducationThe State's literacy rate is 54.46 per cent as per 2001 census, with rural literacy of 48.22 per cent and urban 72.17 per cent. Male literacy is estimated at 67.75 per cent and female at 41.82 per cent. There are five Universities and 41 Colleges, including 8 in private sector. TransportRoads: The road length maintained by PWD in the State has reached to 15,012 km. Railways: At present, rail link extends up to Jammu only. Work on Jammu- Udaipur railway line has been completed. Work for extension of railway line to Srinagar and Baramulla has been taken up. Udhampur-Katra and Qazigund-Baramulla Rail link project has been taken up as national project which is likely to be completed by 2007.Aviation: Srinagar, Jammu and Leh are the major airports connecting Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the country. The Srinagar airport has been upgraded to international level. FestivalsOn the tenth day of the bright fortnight Assuj is celebrated as the day of victory of Rama over Rawana. Shivratri festival is also celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir. Four Muslim festivals celebrated in the State are Id-ul-Fitr, Idul- Zuha, Id-Milad-un-Nabi and Meraj Alam. Muharram is also observed. The Hemis Gumpa festival of Ladakh takes place in the month of June. A special feature of the Hemis festival is its mask dance. In Spituk monastery in Leh, enormous statues of Goddess Kali are exhibited once in the year on theoccasion of the annual festival which falls in January. Other festivals celebrated are Lohri marking a climax of winter. Sinh Sankranti observed in Ramban and adjoining villages. Mela Pat observed in Bhadarwah in the month of August.TourismKashmir Valley is described as the paradise on earth. Chashmashahi springs, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, Dachigam, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg and Amarnath shrine in the Valley, Vaishnodevi shrine and Patnitop near Jammu and Buddhist monasteries in Ladakh are important tourist destinations. Ladakh festival on 15 September and Sindhu Darshan in June are popular events. Jharkhand Area : 79,714 sq km Population : 26,909,428 Capital : Ranchi Principal Languages : Hindi History and Geography Jharkhand, which came into being on 15 November, 2000, as the 28th State of the Union, is the homeland of the tribals for which they had been dreaming for centuries. According to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana and has distinct cultural traditions. In post-Independence era, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha started a regular agitation, which impelled the government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995, and finally attained the status of a full-fledged State. Jharkhand is bounded by West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the west, Bihar in the north and Orissa in the south. AgricultureThe State has an area of 79,714 sq km of which 18,423 sq km is forestland. Agriculture and allied activities are the major source of Jharkhand's economy. The total cultivable land is only 38 lakh hectares. Irrigation and Power Damodar, Maurakshi, Barakar, North Koyel, South Koyel, Sankh, Subarnarekha, Kharkai, and Ajay are major water resources in the State. The net irrigated area is 1.57 lakh hectares, which is 8 per cent of the net sown area. The installed capacity of power in Jharkhand is 2,590 MW. This includes 420 MW (Tenughat Thermal Power Station), 840 MW (Patratu Thermal Power Station), 130 MW (Sikkidiri Hydel Project) and 1,200 MW (Damodar Valley Corporation Thermal/Hydel Project). The prospects of capacity addition in both the thermal and hydel sectors of various power stations is 4,736 MW. This includes 686 Mw hydel generation.Industry and Minerals Some of Jharkhand's major industries are: Bokaro Steel Plant in the public sector, and Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in Jamshedpur in the private sector. Other important industries are Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), Timken India Limited (Jamshedpur), Bharat Cooking Limited (Dhanbad), Khilari Cement Factory (Palamu), Indian Aluminum (Muri), ACC cement (Chaibsa), Central Coalfields Limited (Ranchi), Usha Martin, Usha Beltron, Uranium Corporation (I) Limited (Jadugora), Hindustan Copper Limited (Mussabani), Tin Plate Company of India Limited (Jamshedpur), Indian Explosive Limited (Gomia), and Hindalco Bauxite (Lohardaga), etc. The State is richest in the country in terms of its mineral resources. The important available minerals are coal, iron ore, limestone, copper ore, bauxite, pyrite, china clay, kyanite, fine clay, dolomite, graphite, bentonite, soap stone, quartz sand and silica sand. The nascent state of Jharkhand has the enormous potential for exploitation of coal, mica and other minerals particularly in Singhbhum, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Koderma and Dhanbad. Transport Roads: The total length of roads in the State is 4,311 km. This includes 1,500 km national highways and 2,711 km state highways. Railways: The state has a well-developed railway system. Ranchi, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur are some of the major railway stations. Aviation: Ranchi is connected with Delhi, Patna and Mumbai. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Giridih, Deoghar, Hazaribagh, Daltonganj and Noamundi have their own airstrips. Tourist Centres There are many scenic attractions in the state, namely, Ichagarh Bird Sanctuary, Udhava Bird Sanctuary-Sahibganj (Pathara Lake), Chachro Crocodile Breeding Centre–Koderma (Tilaya Dam), Chandrapura Bird Sanctuary, Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological Garden (Bokaro), Tenughat Bird Sanctuary, Dalma Wild Life Sanctuary (Jamshedpur), Tata Steel Zoological Park (Jamshedpur), Palkote Wild Life Sanctuary (Gumla), Bhagwan Birsa Zoological Gardens (Ranchi), Birsa Deer Sanctuary (Kalmati Ranchi), Betla National Park (Palamau), Ranchi Aquarium (Ranchi) and Hazaribagh National Park, Tatoloi hot water stream (Dumka) and Saranda Forest. Apart from the above, Jharkhand has some famous temples like, Jharkhand Dham, Langta Baba Temple/Majar, Bindhvashini Temple, Masanjore Dam, etc.
Area : 1,91,791 sq km Population : 52,850,562 Capital : Bangalore Principal Languages : Kannada la was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) ruled over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD), who even defeated Harshavardhana of Kannauj. This dynasty created fine monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock-cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country. The Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed, who succeeded them, levied tribute on the rulers of Kannauj successively in the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kannauj'. Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built fine temples, encouraged literature and fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara ) lived at Kalyana. Great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646) fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade also flourished during their rule. The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (tobacco, maize, chillies, groundnut, potato, etc.). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under the British control. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was evident, making way for the emergence of the urban middle-class. Mysore dynasty helped industrialisation and cultural growth. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Indian independence, the new united Mysore State was created in 1956, and was renamed Karnataka in 1973. Karnataka lies to the south of Goa and Maharashtra, to the west of Andhra Pradesh, to the north-west of Tamil Nadu and to the north of Kerala. It has a sea-coast of nearly 400 km (300 km with inundations). AgricultureAgriculture and allied activities account for nearly 56 per cent of the workforce in Karnataka State. Out of the geographical area of 1,90,49,836 hectares, 1,21,08,667 hectares area is accounted as “Agricultural Holdings” and nearly 62,21,000 farm families operate the same. Major food crops are paddy, jowar, ragi, maize, bajra, wheat, pulses, groundnut, sunflower, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. The State contributes about 5.59 per cent in national foodgrains production. Karnataka enjoys a prominent position on the horticultural map of India. The State is blessed with natural resources, favourable agro-climatic conditions and enterprising farming community, which offer scope for an all-round development of horticulture. It is the first state to establish a large scale Biotechnology Centre under public sector to cater to the needs of farmers of the state with an objective to produce quality-plant materials and conserve the genetic diversity of horticulture plants. Horticulture covers an area of 15.81 lakh hectares in the State. The horticultural policy focuses on area expansion, dissemination of new technology and production and supply productivity of planting materials.Irrigation and Power Karnatka has the basins of the Krishna, Cauvery, Godavari, North Pennar, South Pennar, Palar and the west flowing river basins as well with a drainage area of 1,90,500 sq km. The average annual yield of the rivers has been estimated as 97,352 m.cum. The ultimate irrigation potential of the State from all sources has been estimated at about 61 lakh hectares consisting of 35 lakhhectares under major and medium irrigation, 10 lakh hectares under minor irrigation (surface) projects and 16 lakh hectares under groundwater resources.The Karnataka Electricity Reform Act was enacted in 1999. The Karnataka Electricity Regulatory Commission (KERC) has been functioning since December 1999 and the erstwhile Karnataka Electricity Board was corporatised under the banner KPTCL. The KPTCL was further unbundled into the Transmission Company (KPTCL) and four Distribution companies, namely, BESCOM, MESCOM, HESCOM and GESCOM. These four were catering to about 12.50 million consumers.The total installed generation capacity of the State is 5,836 MW. In the next 3 to 4 years, it is planned to add about 2,400 MW of additional generation capacity mainly from the following power projects: (i) Almatti Hydel Project: 290 MW: (ii) RTPS 8th unit 210 MW; (iii) Bellary Thermal Power Project 500 MW; and (iv) Bidadi Combined Cycle Project 1,400 MW.The State has achieved 100 per cent in village electrification. Now the main thrust is on electrification of hamlets. More emphasis is being given for reduction of commercial losses.IndustryThe State has been a pioneer in industry and also had the distinction of building a strong and vibrant industrial base, which combined the strengths of a large public sector, privately owned large and medium industries and a very wide and dispersed small-scale sector. Good labour relations have helped the state achieve pre-eminence on the industrial map. In more recent times, Karnataka has emerged as the knowledge and technical capital of the country. The thick concentration of I.T related industries, bio-technology, BPO's and IPO's combined with strong research and development institutions and a large pool of qualified trained manpower have ensured that the state is now leading global player. The Government has been consistently pursuing progressive industrial policies to meet the changing needs of the State’s economy and industry.Karnataka is one among the most preferred destinations for foreign investments in India and houses 65 of world fortune 500 companies. The State Government has evolved a new Industrial Policy for the Textile Industry. The State is home for every sector of industry such as, Information Technology, Bio-technology, Electronics, Telecom, Aerospace, Processed Foods, Apparel, Automobiles, Banking and Finance, Mining, Steel, Cement and much more. The State is having small, large and medium scale industries providingemployment to a large number of people in the State. The State contributes 70 per cent of India’s coffee and silk, 20 per cent electronic hardware and 35 per cent of software for exports and is a major producer of spices, flowers, fruits and vegetables.Karnataka has a progressive industrial policy in place that actively supports public-private partnership. Sector specific policies, viz., I.T. Policy, B.T. Policy, B.P.O. Policy, Tourism Policy, Agro Food Processing Policy and Export Promotion Policy are in place for focused backing. The State has simplified Labour Law, Land Reforms Act, and the Karnataka Industries (Facilitation) Act 2002 is under enactment to ease doing business in the State and wherein deemed approval clause is incorporated.MineralsKarnataka is endowed with rich mineral deposits. All minerals except hydrocarbons are available in the State. Important minerals are gold iron ore, copper, manganese, chromite, limestone, clay, kaonite, silica sand, molding sand, felsite, quartzite and ornamental granites, etc. The State is getting about Rs 170 crore as royalty on minerals produced in the State. Information TechnologyKarnataka – the Silicon State is the most favoured destination for IT and other knowledge based industries. The State has the most investor friendly policy. The State has taken major initiatives in the e-governance area. It has computerised all treasuries. It is programmed to implement the delivery of caste and income certificate, birth and Death certificate, old age pensions, domicile certificate, etc., under the Rural Digital Services (RDS) project.Besides computerising government offices latest information to the farmers regarding techniques of crop production, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fishery, Sericulture and Diary farming has also been computerised.TransportRoads: There are 13 National Highways in Karnataka State. The total length is 3,967 km. Out of the 13 National Highways, 2 viz., NH.4 and NH.7 are handed over to National Highways Authority of India, New Delhi for improvements under the Golden Quadrilateral and North-South corridor respectively. The remaining 3,008 km comprising of 11 National Highways are improved/maintained by Government of India. The total length of State Highways is 9,590 km. Lengths of major district roads, municipal roads and other district and village roads are respectively 38,247 km, 8,366 km and 1,12,958 Km.Railways: Rail network in Karnataka is 3,100 km, which includes broad gauge (2,450 km), metre gauge (350 km). Aviation: Bangalore, Belgaum, Mangalore and Hubli are the main airports. Direct flight facilities to major cities of India are available from Bangalore. Some international flight activity already exists in the current HAL/Domestic Airport.Ports: Karnataka has formulated a new port policy. The strategy adopted is to use private investment for the creation of port facilities, development of new sites and supporting infrastructure, maritime related industries, and coastal shipping and port facilities for power projects. The Karnataka Industrial Investment and Development Corporation has been appointed as nodal agency for implementation of this policy. A committee has been constituted to finalise the framework of agreement with private parties.Tourist Attraction Karnataka has numerous Tourist attractions. The former princely capital Mysore with the Brindavan Gardens and Srirangapattana nearby, Sharavanabelgola with the famous monolithic statue of Gomateshwara (57 ft high), Belur, Halebid and Somnathpura with the famous Hoysala monuments; Badami, Aihole and Pattadkal for the 1,300 year old rock-cut and structural temples; Hampi, the famous open air museum (ancient Vijayanagar); Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur, renowned for their Indo-saracenic monuments; Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada Districts for beautiful beaches; Mangalore and Krwar for ports; Chitradurga, Bidar, Basavakalyan and Gulbarga with attractive forts; Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park are the play ground of Wild Life; Ranganthittu, Kokkre Bellur, Mandagadde, Gudavi, Attiveri are the famous bird sanctuaries; Jog, Sathodi, Shivanasamudra, Mogod, Gokak, Abbey, Unchalli. Irupu, Hebbe, Kalhatti are the mesmerising Falls; Madikeri, Kemmannugundi, B.R. Hills, Nandi Hills, Kudremukh, Kodachadri are the Picturesque Hill Stations. Dussehra, Hampi, Chalukya, Kadamba, Hoysala, Kodagu, Karaga festivals, are depicting art and culture of Karnataka. Kabini River Lodge, K. Gudi, Cauveri Fishing Camp, D handeli Wilderness Camp, Devbagh are the unique Eco-Tourism projects of Karnataka. Gokarna, Udupi, Dharmashala, Melukote, Gangappura, Saundatti, Kollur, Sringeri, Horanadu, Kalasa, Kukke Subramanya, Yediyur, Koodalasangama, Ulvi, Nanjangud are famous pilgrimage centres. Tourism Department has identified 215 tourist spots in the State. The capital city of Bangalore is also a tourist attraction with its famous huge granite structure. Vidhana Soudha and the beautiful Cubbon Park, and Lalbhag. Hampi and Pattadakal have been declared as World Heritage sites.
Area : 38,863 sq km Population : 31,841,374 Capital : Thiruvananthapuram Principal Languages : Malayalam History and Geography Kerala is in the extreme south-west of the Indian subcontinent. When the independent India amalgamated small states together Travancore and Cochin states were integrated to form Travancore-Cochin state on 1 July, 1949. However, Malabar remained under the Madras province. Under the State's reorganisation Act-1956, Travancore-Cochin state and Malabar were united to form Kerala State on 1 November, 1956. Kerala's culture has been an integral part of the mainstream of Indian culture. In between the high Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west, the width of the state varies from 35 km to 120 km. According to the geographical features, the State can be divided into hills, valleys, midland plains and costal belt. Kerala is rich in rivers and backwaters. 44 rivers (41 west flowing and 3 east flowing) cut across Kerala with their innumerable tributaries and benches. The backwaters form an attractive and economically valuable feature of Kerala. Kerela-Backwaters View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
AgricultureA unique feature of the state is the Predominance of cash crops. About 50 per cent of the population depends on agriculture. Kerala is a major producer of coconut, rubber, pepper, cardamom, ginger, cocoa, cashew, aracanut, coffee and tea. Spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, etc., are also cultivated. Rice and Tapioca are the important food crops. The average annual decline in area under rice during the Eight Five-Year plan was around 22,000 ha, whereas it has come down to an average of 13,000 ha during the Ninth Plan period. However during 2004-05 a slight increase in area was recorded by 2634 ha from 2.87 lakh ha in 2003-04 to 2.90 lakh ha and rice production increased form 5.70 lakh MT to 6.67 lakh MT, an increase of 17 per cent during this period compared to a reduction of 17 per cent in 2003-04 with that of 2002-2003.The unprecedented drought in recent years has contributed to the decline of Paddy production during 2003-04 which was reversed in 2004-05. During 2004-05 maximum increase in rice production was recorded in Allappuzha (+75 per cent) and Palakkad (+37 per cent) compared to previous year.Coconut is the most important cash crop of Kerala with a coverage of 9 lakhs ha. Coconut occupies 41 per cent of net cropped area and provides lively hood to over 3.5 million families. Production declined by 2.5 per cent in 2004- 05 compared to the previous year. The average productivity has also slightly declined in 2004-05 by 2.5 per cent to 6379 nuts/ha compared to 2003-04.Pepper is one of the major export oriented commodities in which the state continuous to enjoy a near monopoly in area and production. The productivity of pepper recorded during 2004 – 05 was only 327 kg. per ha. The production declined form 69015 MT during 2003-04 to 68362MT in 2004-05. Pepper produced in Kerala fetches a premium price in International Market in view of its intrinsic quality.Kerala has a substantial share in the four plantation crops of rubber, coffee, tea and cardamom. The four crops together occupy 6.42 lakh ha accounting for 29 per cent of the net cropped area in the state and 42 per cent of the area in the country.Kerala accounts for 83 per cent of area under rubber in the country. The coverage under crop in 2004-05 was 4.81 lakh ha higher by 2141 ha, over the previous year. The production of natural rubber in Kerala during the year was 6.91 lakh tonnes indicating a 5 per cent increase over the previous year. The increasing trend in productivity continued during 2004-05.The area under coffee in Kerala was 0.846 lakh ha, out of 3.28 lakh ha in the country during 2004-05 which works out to 26 per cent. The share of Kerala in production is 19.7 per cent during 2004-05. Production of coffee during the year was only 0.54 lakh MT against 2.75 lakh MT for the country.Against the total area of 5.11 lakh ha under tea in the country Kerala accounts for only 0.37 lakh ha. In respect of production the share of Kerala declined to 6 per cent in 2004 from 7 per cent in the previous year. Tea plantation owned by big companies employee a labour force of over 84,000 in the organised sector.The share of Kerala in the production of cardamom at the national level also increased from 28 per cent to 76 per cent in 2004-05.IndustryKerala is rich in industrial potentialities and infrastructure facilities such as hydro-electric power, rich forests, rare minerals and the efficient system of transport and communications. Traditional industries are handloom, cashew, coir and handicrafts, other important industries are rubber, tea, ceramics, electric and electronic appliances, telephone cables, transformers, bricks and tiles, drugs and chemicals, general engineering, plywood splints and veneers, beedi and cigar, soaps, oils, fertilizers and khadi and village industry products. There are a number of manufacturing units for production of precision instruments, machine tools, petroleum products, paints, pulp paper, newsprint, glass and non-ferrous metals. Principal export products are cashew nut, tea, coffee, spices, lemon grass oil, sea foods, rose wood and coir. The state has an abundance of important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, monozite, zircon,sillimanite, clay and quartz sand.The performance in the industrial export of almost all major products recorded positive growth. Software exports increased by around 66 per cent from Rs. 240 crore in 2003-04 to 400 crore in 2004-05. The number of industrial disputes pending is 2658 by 2004-05 which is lower than in 2003-04. The number of strikes and lockouts during 2004-05 decreased compared to 2003-04.In Kerala 14655 joint stock companies were working as on 31 March 2005 which includes 13210 private limited and 1445 public limited companies. Kerala has the largest number of PSUs in India (113 out of 1071) which employ 1,15,697 persons, of these 63 manufacturing units are classified under chemical engineering, electrical equipment, textiles, electronic, ceramics, infrastructure,agro and wood based sectors. There has been an improvement in the overall profitability of public sector units under the Industries Department in 2004-05.The Government of Kerala assists, industrial units by providing financial assistance, infrastructure and training / consultancy services. The important agencies/departments engaged in industrial promotion are KFC, KSIDC, SIDBI, KINFRA, Directorate of Industries and Commerce, SIDC, SISI, KITCO & CMD.The Directorate of Industries and Commerce provides infrastructure facilities for small-scale sector by acquiring land and developing it into developmental area/plots with facilities like developed land, road, water supply, electricity, necessary building, etc. The Small Industries Development Corporation also undertakes works on provision of infrastructure facilities for the small-scale sector through its major industrial estate and mini industrial estates.One of the major thrust areas for export promotion has been the Special Economic Zone. The scheme intends to set up Special Economic Zone in the country with a view to provide an internationally competitive and hassle freeenvironment for exports. Kochi is the only city in India having three Special Economic Zones – Electronic Parks at KINFRA in Kalamassery, Cochin SEZs, Port Based SEZ. Other SEZs – Malappuram Food Park, Technopark, proposed SEZ - Thiruvananthapuram Apparel Park, Film and Video Park, Animation SEZ (First Animation SEZ in India).The small-scale industrial sector is one of the most dynamic and vibrant sectors in the Indian economy in terms of employment generation. The Small scale industrial unit registered in Kerala as on 31 March 2005 was 280584 with an investment of Rs. 4230.03 crore and an employment to 12,60,007 persons. During 2004-05, 4935 units with an investment of Rs. 198.63 crore providingemployment to 22585 persons were registered.The Government of Kerala has drawn up an investment promotion programme named as Kerala Local Industry Promotion Programme (KLIPP) under the banner name of PRATHYASA through District Industries Centre. The objective of the scheme is to facilitate the setting up of 25,000 units in the small scale sector generating to 1,00,000 employment during 2005-06.Information TechnologyInformation technology and the ability to use it is increasingly being considered as the critical factor in generating and accessing wealth, power and knowledge and therefore Societal Welfare. The Government of Kerala has taken several steps for the development of IT in the State. Prominent among them are: (1) Technopark – Thiruvananthapuram – India’s first World Class, World - Scale - IT campus. (2.) IT Park at KINFRA at Kochi. (3) Akshaya Programme of Kerala IT Mission. (4) E-Governance initiatives of State Government like FRIENDSTechnopark was conceived as an integrated IT environment with all necessary basic and enhanced infrastructural facilities that the industry need. It acts as a single-point contact for the most of the Government of India clearances and approvals. Technopark got ISO 9001 : 2000 Certification in 2004 for establishing and maintaining a quality system for creation and marketing of infrastructure and support services for IT campus. It is a first service organisation which has been awarded CMMI level 4 certification by CarnegieMellon University, USA in 2004.Today the campus is host to about 84 international and domestic companies with an investment of Rs. 634.25 crore. During 2004-05 acquisition of land was carried out for further expansion of the existing campus. 86 acres of land has been already acquired and the proceedings for taking advance possession are in progress. The new campus of Technopark (86 Acres) is declared by Central Government as Special Economic Zone.The Info Park at Kochi is a 92 acre Park with a built-up area of 3.5 lakh sq. ft. Major companies like WIPRO, OPI, ACS, IBS and TCS commenced operations in Info Park. 1400 employees are currently engaged in Infopark facilities. The total investment of the company is Rs. 80.43 crore. The total export for Infopark companies is Rs. 32 crore.Kerala has been selected as 2nd best state in India in implementation of egovernance. FRIENDS (Fast Reliable Instant Efficient Network for disbursement Service) is a “Single Window Mechanism” where citizens have the opportunity to pay all taxes and other financial dues to the Government.E-pay is an online bill payment facility introduced by Government of Kerala through Akshaya e-kendras as an extension of FRIENDS project in Malappuram District during August 2004.The citizen call centre first of its kind in the country setup in the state capital provide information on transactions, pertaining to various government departments which are required by common citizens over telephone.IrrigationKeeping in line with National Approach Kerala also relied upon surface water irrigation system operating the gravitational force for distribution. A major chunk of the outlay on water resources sector was earmarked for major and medium irrigation. Out of a cumulative investment of Rs. 3572.40 crore made as on March 2005, Rs. 2462.51 crore (69 per cent) was for major and mediumirrigation.The irrigation system in Kerala is serviced through major, medium and minor irrigation as well as ground water and command area development programmes. The completed major irrigation projects are Malampuzha, Chalakkudy, Peechi, Pampa, Periyar, Chittorpuzha, Kuttiyadi, Neyyar, Chimmini, Pazhassi, Kanjirapuzha and Kallada and the medium projects are Pothundy, Gayathri, Walayar, Vazhani, Mangalam and Cheerakuzhi. Construction works of four major projects Muvattupuzha, Idamalayar, Karapuzha, Kuriarkuty – Karappara and the medium projects Banasurasagar, Bridge-cum-regulator at Thrithala and Chammaravattom are in progress.In Kerala an outlay of Rs. 930 crore is set apart for irrigation sector during 10th plan period which includes Rs. 600 crore for major and medium irrigation, Rs. 205 crore for minor irrigation for Rs. 50 crore for Flood Control and Anti-Sea Erosion work. During the first three years of plan period an amount of Rs. 435.95 crore was budgeted and expenditure for the period was Rs. 494.63 crore. The major portion of the outlay on water resources sector was earmarked for major and medium irrigation projects.The Command Area Development programme was launched with the main objective of bridging the gap between the irrigation potential created and utilised and improving agriculture production and productivity in the irrigation commands. The programme was restructured in 2003-04 and re-named as Command Area Development and Water Management Programme.The main activities of Command Area Development Authority (CADA) include construction of field channels, field drains, enforcement of wara bandhi and reclamation of Water logged areas. The CAD activities were carried out in 16 completed irrigation projects, namely, Malampuzha, Mangalam, Pothundy, Walayar, Cheerakuzhy, Vazhani, Peechi, Chalakkudy, Neyyar, Gayatri, Pampa, Periyar Valley, Chitturpuzha, Kuttiyadi, Pazhachi and Kanjirapuzha with a total ayacut of 2.03 lakh ha. CADA programmes are implemented with financial assistance of Govt. of India. The achievement recorded during 2004-05 include construction of field channels in 1998 ha, drains to benefit 6156 ha, adaptive trials in 10ha, 83 training programmes, bench mark and evaluation studies in 2302 ha. The work on reclamation of water locked areas were done in 1033 ha and 3 evaluation reports were also published.PowerThe growth of power sector in Kerala during the last two decades has been remarkable. During the early stages of development, focus was on tapping hydro power potential in the state. Kerala Power System consists of 30 power generating stations which include 24 hydel, 5 thermal and one wind of which KSEB owns 24 hydel and one wind and two thermal stations.The total installed capacity in Kerala as on 31 March 2005 is estimated as 2617.22 MW of which KSEB’s hydel plants contribute 1810.60 MW, Wind farm at Kanchikode 2.0 MW and Thermal Power Plants 234.60 MW.Malankara Hydro Electric Project was commissioned on 23 October 2005. As a result the installed capacity has been increased by 10.5 MW.Under the micro-hydel programme, implementation of Micro Hydel Projects on behalf of two district Panchayats, Kammadi in Kasargode district and Chakkarakundu in Kozhikode district have been undertaken by ANERT. UNIDO has set up a Regional Centre on small hydro power at Energy Management Centre. The centre has prepared detailed project reports for 30 small hydro projects in Kerala. Of which 13 small hydro project were allotted to bidders under Captive Power Projects and Independent Power Projects onBOOT basis. The first off grid 100 KW micro hydel power projects was commissioned in Mankulam, Iduki District. Pasavaikumbe in Kasargode district and Kalyanathandu in Idukki district are two sites identified for study under the National Wind Energy Resource Assessment.In the light of launching the project, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyuteekaran Yojana (RGGVY) by the Government of India, proposals were submitted to the Government of India with an outlay Rs. 348.79 crore for the electrification of 3578 habitations in 930 villages covering 14 districts of Kerala. The Government of India have sanctioned Rs. 221.75 crore to implement the scheme as first phase covering seven districts in Kerala viz. Kasargod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Idukki, and Palakkad.Transport Transport system of the state consists of 1.54 lakh km of Road, 1148 km of Railways 1687 km of Inland Water Ways and 111 statute miles of Airways and 18 ports.National Highways in KeralaSl. No. Name Length (km)1. NH 17 – Thalappady – Edappally 420.7772. NH 47 – Walayar – Kaliyikkavila 416.8003. NH 47 A – Wellington Island to Kochi – Bypass 5.9204. NH 49 – Bodimettu – Muvatupuzha – Kochi 167.5935. NH 208 – Kollam – Aryankavu – Muvattupuzha 81.2806. NH 212 – Kozhikode – Kallegel 117.6007. NH 213 – Kozhikode – Palakkad 125.3008. NH 220 – Kollam – Kottayam – Kumily – Theni 190.300Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP) launched in June 2002 with the assistance of World Bank is in the process of upgrading and widening of 584 km of existing roads and carrying out heavy maintenance of 993 km of roads and150 km of performance linked maintenance. Upgradation of 93 km of inland water canals also forms part of the project.Roads: Kerala is the maiden state in the country having hundred per cent road axis to its remote villages. The total length of roads in the state is 138196.471 km, of which 21467.492 km comes under PWD, 1523.954 km under National Highways, and 95515.888 km under Panchayats. Railway: The state has a total railway route of 1,148 km and covers 13 railway routes. It has 1,053.86 km of broad gauge lines and 94.14 km of meter gauge lines. Aviation: There are three airports, viz., Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi (Nedumbassery) and Kozhikode, of which the first two are international airports. Ports Sector: Along its coastline of 585 km Kerala has one major port at Kochi and 17 minor intermediate ports. The Prime Minister laid the foundation stone for the Vallarpadam International Container Transshipment Terminal on 16 December 2005. Completion of the prestigious project would make the Kochi Port as a major hubport in the Indian Ocean.Education Kerala has achieved a high literacy rate of 90.92 per cent (2001 census), as against the all India rate of 65.38 per cent. In Kerala, among the districts, Kottayam has the highest literacy rate of 95.90 per cent and Palakkad has the lowest literacy of 84.31 per cent. Regional and gender disparities in literacy rates are least in Kerala. The infrastructure created under District Primary Education programme, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and involvement of Local Governments have contributed to the improved facilities. Kerala has seven universities and two deemed universities. During the past five years, there has been a tremendous increase of technical educational institutions in Kerala. FestivalsKerala is the home of many colourful festivals. Most of them have a religious fervour inspired by Hindu mythology. Onam is the most typical of Kerala festivals, which coincides with the harvest season. It is now celebrated on astronomical New Year Day. Navarathri is celebrated as Saraswathi Pooja in Kerala. Maha Shivarathri is celebrated on the banks of Periyar River as a spectacular festival, which is compared to Kumbhamela. The 41 days festival, which coincides with Makaravilakku in Sabarimala Ayyappan temple, attracts lakhs of people from India and abroad. The Vallamkali or boat race is typical of Kerala. All the boat festivals have a religious origin except Nehru Trophy Boat race conducted in the Punnamada Lake. Vadakkumnatha temple at Thrissur celebrates Pooram festivals in April every year with an impressive procession of caparisoned elephants and display of unparalleled pyrotechnics. Main Christian festivals are Christmas and Easter. Maramon convention, held every year on the Pumba riverbed, is the biggest gathering of Christians in Asia. The Muslims celebrate Milade Shareef, Ramzan fasting, Id ul Fitr and Bakr-id.TourismTourism to Kerala is what apple growing is to Himachal Pradesh. Both these regions offer all the pre-conditions for sustained and successful growth of the respective activities. The factors stimulating a flourishing tourism sector include, scenic splendour, moderate climate, clean environment, friendly and peace loving people with high tolerance for cultural diversity and the potential forcreating unique tourism products.Kerala has emerged as the most acclaimed tourist destination in the country. Beaches, warm weather, back waters, hill stations, water falls, wild life, Ayurveda, year–round festivals and diverse flora and fauna make Kerala a unique destination for tourists.The Department of Tourism, Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, District Tourism Promotion Council, Bakal Tourism Development Corporation, Local Government and Private Sector are the major players in the field. The thrust areas presently being looked into are for the development of village tourism, MICE tourism (meeting, incentives, conventions and events/ exhibitions/trade shows), heritage tourism, eco-tourism and medical tourism.Thenmala Eco-Tourism project features a tourist facilitation centre, shop court garden, plazas, picnic area, natural trail, rock climbing, river crossing amphitheatre, restaurant, suspension bridge, lotus pond, musical dancing fountain, sculpture garden, deer rehabilitation centre, boating, battery powered vehicles, etc. During 2004-05, 104622 tourists visited Thenmala and the revenuegenerated was Rs. 3563820.The foreign exchange earning from tourism during 2004 is Rs. 1266.77 crore. The earning from domestic tourists during 2004 is Rs. 3881.92 crore. Total revenue generated from tourism directly and indirectly in the state are worked out as about Rs. 6829 crore. Tourism employs about 8 lakh persons in the state. The investment in tourism is about Rs. 500 crore per year.EducationAccording to 2001 census, the literacy rate in Kerala is well above the National average and it is the highest among the Indian States. The literacy rate in Kerala is 90.86 per cent in 2001 as against the all India rate of 65.38 per cent The male and female literacy rate are 94.2 per cent and 87.6 per cent respectively.In Kerala there are 12650 schools in 2005 comprising of 6827 lower primary schools, 3042 upper primary schools and 2781 high schools. Besides there are 483 CBSE School, 78 ICSE Schools, 27 Kendriya Vidyalayas and 13 Jawahar Navodaya Vidhyalayas.The aided school system still keeps strong presence in Kerala. Out of the total 12650 schools 7287 are private aided schools (57.60 per cent). Of the total 3042 UP schools 31.36 per cent are in Government sector, 61.47 per cent in private aided sector and the rest 7.17 per cent are in private unaided sector. Of the total 2781 high schools 35.78 per cent are government, 51.17 per cent areprivate aided and 13.05 per cent are private unaided.Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the most ambitious educational project since independence aims to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the age group 6 to 14 by 2010.The number of protected teachers both in Government and Aided schools stood at 3148 during 2004-05. It includes 524 High school teachers, 1904 PD teachers and 720 special teachers.The number of protected teachers both in Government and Aided schools stood at 3148 during 2004-05. It includes 524 High school teachers, 1904 PD teachers and 720 special teachers.In order to reorganise secondary level of education in accordance with the National Educational Policy Higher Secondary course was introduced in the state. As a first step during 1990-91, 31 government schools were upgraded to the status of Higher Secondary Schools. Grading system of evaluation has been introduced in Higher secondary levels from 2005-06 academic year onwards.Vocational Higher Secondary Education was introduced in the state with the objective of maximum achievement of employment opportunity by making more skillful and job oriented manpower. As a first step, the course was introduced in 19 government high schools during 1983-84. The sanctioned intake and actual enrolment in VHSS during 2004-05 are 26874 and 25382 respectively.Kerala Higher Education System comprises of 7 universities and two deemed universities. Universities in Kerala now shift emphasis from conventional courses to professional and technical job oriented courses. Most of the new courses are self-financing. The two major sources of income for universities in Kerala are plan and non-plan grants provided to them by the state government. The plan and non plan expenditure of the universities during 2003-04 was Rs. 11014.6 lakhs. It increased to 12858.1 lakh during 2004- 05.HealthKerala has achieved very good health standards in areas like birth rate, death rate, infant motality rate, maternal mortality rate, average life at birth and immunisation. In Kerala birth rate is 16.90, death rate - 6.40, IMR – 10 and MMR – 0.87 per thousand population. Though Kerala has attained better health care indicators, the people are now facing the problem of high morbidityboth from communicable and non-communicable diseases.Kerala’s health care system consists of Allopathy, Ayurveda and Homoeopathy. Three systems of medicines together have 2696 institutions in government sector. The three systems together have 48834 beds in the Government Sector. Kerala has almost attained universalisation of immunisation. During 2004-05, the coverage of BCG was 104.3 per cent. Data collected from RCC shows that more patients treated for cancer are in the age group of 55 to 64 years. The first HIV positive case was identified in Kerala in 1987.Kerala spends fairly substantial amount on medical and public health which is evident from percapita government health expenditure.Drinking Water SupplyIn Kerala 82.59 per cent urban and 62.24 per cent rural population have been covered by piped water supply by 2004-05. The overall water supply coverage is 67.52 per cent as against 65.2 per cent during 2003-04. The rural – urban coverage during 2003-04 was 60 per cent and 80 per cent respectively. During 2004-05 additional population covered with protected water supply was 7.43 lakh. Out of it 66887 (9 per cent) were Scheduled Caste and 8175 (1 per cent) were Scheduled Tribe Population.Kerala Water Authority has 1895 water supply schemes in operation as on 1 April 2005. It consists of 65 urban schemes, 952 Rural Multi Panchayat schemes and 878 Rural Single Panchayat Schemes. During 2004-05, 40 schemes have been commissioned, of which 6 are urban and 34 of Rural. Government of Kerala has taken up 2 water supply projects with external assistance they are (1) JBIC Assisted Kerala Water Supply Project and (2) World Bank aided Kerala Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (Jalanidhi).Poverty EradicationKerala is seeking to achieve a breakthrough in participatory poverty reduction through local government and Kudumbasree Programmes implemented by State Poverty Eradiation Mission. As per the NSSO 55th round, (1999-2000). Kerala’s poverty is 9.35 per cent in rural areas and 20.27 per cent in urban areas. The 1999-2000 data shows Kerala’s Poverty at 12.72 per cent against allIndia rate of 26.30 per cent. Kudumbasree System facilitates microlevel interventions to reduce poverty and accurately monitor poverty reduction initiatives where it happens. An innovative extension of this programme called ‘ASRAYA’ has been implemented in about one third of Kerala to provide community based social security to the poorest of the poor.

Maharashtra Area : 3,07,713 sq km Population : 96,752,247 Capital : Mumbai Principal Languages : Marathi History and Geography The first well-known rulers of Maharashtra were the Satavahanas (230 BC 225 AD), who were the founders of Maharashtra, and have left a plethora of literary, epigraphic, artistic and archaeological evidence. This epoch marks tremendous development in every field of human endeavour. Then came the Vakatakas, who established a pan-Indian empire. Under them, Maharashtra witnessed an all-sided development in the fields of learning, arts and religion. Some of the Ajanta Caves and fresco paintings reached the high-level mark during their rule. After the Vakatakas and after a brief interlude of the Kalachuri dynasty, the most important rulers were the Chalukyas, followed by the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas, apart from the Shilaharas on the coast. The Yadavas, with Marathi as their court language extended their authority over large parts of the Deccan. While the Bahamani rule brought a degree of cohesion to the land and its culture, a uniquely homogeneous evolution of Maharashtra as an entity became a reality under the able leadership of Shivaji. A new sense of Swaraj and nationalism was evolved by Shivaji. His noble and glorious power stalled the Mughal advances in this part of India. The Peshwas established the Maratha supremacy from the Deccan Plateau to Attock in Punjab. Maharashtra was in the forefront of the freedom struggle, and it was here that the Indian National Congress was born. A galaxy of leaders from Mumbai and other cities in Maharashtra led the Congress movement under the guidance of Tilak, and later Mahatma Gandhi. Maharashtra was the home of Gandhiji’s movement, while Sevagram was the capital of nationalistic India during the Gandhian era. The administrative evolution of the state of Maharashtra is the outcome of the linguistic reorganisation of the States of India, effected on 1 May, 1960. The State was formed by bringing together all contiguous Marathi-speaking areas, which previously belonged to four different administrative hegemonies—the district between Daman and Goa that formed part of the original British Bombay Province; five districts of the Nizam’s dominion of Hyderabad; eight districts in the south of the Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh) and a sizeable number of petty native-ruled state enclaves lying enclosed within the above areas, which later merged with adjoining districts. Located in the north centre of Peninsular India, with the command of the Arabian Sea through its port of Mumbai, Maharashtra has a remarkable physical homogeneity, enforced by its underlying geology. The dominant physical trait of the State is its plateau character. Maharashtra is a plateau of plateaus, its western upturned rims rising to form the Sahyadri Range parallel to the sea-coast, and its slopes gently descending towards the east and south-east. Satpuda ranges cover northern part of the State, while Ajanta and Satmala ranges run through central part of the State. Arabian Sea guards the western boundary of Maharashtra, while Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are on the northern side. Chhattisgarh covers the eastern boundary of the State. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are on its southern side. AgricultureAbout 65 per cent of the total workers in the State depend on agriculture and allied activities. Principal crops grown in the State are rice, jowar, bajra, wheat, tur, mung, urad, gram and other pulses. The State is a major producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean are major oil seed crops. Important cash crops are cotton, sugarcane, turmeric and vegetables. The State has an area of 12.90 lakh hectares under various fruit crops like mango, banana, orange, grape, cashewnut, etc. IndustryThe State has been identified as the country’s powerhouse and Mumbai, its capital as the centre point of India's financial and commercial markets. Industrial sector occupies a prominent position in the economy of Maharashtra. Food products, breweries, tobacco and related products, cotton textiles, textile products, paper and paper products, printing and publishing, rubber, plastic, chemical and chemical products, machinery, electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, and transport equipment and parts contribute substantially to the industrial production in the state. Irrigation and PowerBy the end of June-2005, 32 major, 178 medium and about 2,274 state sector minor irrigation projects had been completed. Another 21 major and 39 medium irrigation projects are under construction. The gross irrigated area in 2004-2005 was 36.36 lakh hectares.Maharashtra had an installed capacity of 12,909 MW in 2004-2005. The Plant Load Factor (PLF) in the State was 81.6 per cent and power generation was 68,507 million KWH.TransportRailways: Maharashtra has 5,450 km of railway routes, of which 78.4 per cent is broad gauge, 8.1 per cent meter gauge, and 13.5 per cent is narrow gauge. Aviation: Maharashtra has a total of twenty-four Air fields/airports. Of these, 17 are under the control of the State Government, four are managed and controlled by the International Airport Authority/Airport Authority of India, and three by the Ministry of Defence. The Airfields under the control of the State government have no facilities for the operation of commercial flights at present. Ports: Mumbai is the major port. There are two major, and 48 notified minor ports in the State. Tourist Centres Some important tourist centres are: Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Kanheri and Karla caves, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran and Panchgani, Jawhar, Malshejghat, Amboli, Chikaldara, Panhala Hill stations and religious places at Pandharpur, Nasik, Shirdi, Nanded, Audhanagnath, Trimbakeshwar, Tuljapur, Ganpatipule, Bhimashanker, Harihareshwar, Shegaon, Kolhapur, Jejuri and Ambajogai.
Manipur Area : 22,327 sq km Population : 2,293,896 Capital : Imphal Principal Languages : Manipuri History and Geography Manipur has a long and glorious history from the beginning of the Christian era. The recorded history of kingship started from 33 AD, which marked the coronation of Pakhangba. After Pakhangba, a series of kings ruled over the kingdom of Manipur. The independence and sovereignty of Manipur remained uninterrupted until the Burmese invaded and occupied it for seven years in the first quarter of the 19th century (1819-25). Then came British Paramountcy in 1891, and later on it was merged in the Indian Union as part ‘‘C’’ State on 15 October, 1949. This was replaced by a Territorial Council of 30 elected and 2 nominated members. Later in 1963, a Legislative Assembly of 30 elected and 3 nominated members was established under the Union Territories Act, 1962. The status of the administrator was raised from Chief Commissioner to the status of the Lt. Governor with effect from 19 December, 1969. Manipur attained full-fledged statehood on 21 January, 1972. With this, a Legislative Assembly consisting of 60 elected members was established.Manipur is situated on the eastern frontier of India. It is bounded on the east by Myammar (Burma), on the north by the State of Nagaland, on the west by the State of Assam and on the south by the State of Mizoram and Myanmar. Manipur lies between 23.830 N and 25.680 N latitude and between 93.030 E and 94.780 E longitude. It has an area of 22,327 sq. kms. Physically Manipur comprises of two parts, the hills and the valley. The valley is at the centre surrounded by hills on all sides. The hills cover about 9/10 of the total area of the State. Manipur Valley is about 790 metres above the sea level. The hill ranges are higher on the north and gradually diminish in height as they reach the southern part of Manipur. The valley itself slopes down towards the south.AgricultureThe State Agriculture Department now plans to go ahead with commercialisation during the 10th Plan period. The department is focusing on (1) increasing cropping intensity from the present level of 138.30 per cent by the end of 10th Plan (year 2006-07). (2) Increasing present level of farm mechanisation, i.e., 0.1 HP/Ha. to 0.9 HP/Ha. (3) Improving the soil health through amelioration of acid soil. (4) Minimising external dependence for supply of seed inputs by strengthening infrastructure in state farms so that gradually the state can produce its own requirement of seed inputs. (5) Giving better protection to plants from insects pests and diseases through Integrated Pest Management (6) Strengthening the existing training infrastructure for better transfer of technology to the farmers (7) developing infrastructure for agriculture research and (8) bringing a change in the cropping scenario in hill areas of the state by introducing high yielding varieties of crops particularly paddy, oil seeds and pulses for overall increase in agricultural production and productivity to meet the demands of the increasing human population.ForestTotal area under forest cover is 17,219 of which 6,536 falls under dense forest while 10,681 falls under open forest. The forest cover accounts for 77.12 per cent of the State’s geographical area. Siroy hill range in Ukhrul District, Manipur is the abode of Siroy Lily (Lilium macklineae), the flower which is not found elsewhere in the world. The Dzuko valley is also the only habitat of the endemic and the rarest species Dzuko Lily (Lilium chitrangade). Manipur is the only spot on earth in which the Brow-Antlered Deer (Cervus eldi eldi) locally known as Sangai is found. This rare deer is surviving in its natural habitat at the Keibul LamjaoThis habitat was declared as a National Park in the year 1977 covering an area of 40 sq. km. It is unique in its own physical feature as the park lies submerged under water covered entirely on the surface by a floating entangled mass of vegetation like grass, shrubs and earth, called phumdi. The deer survives on top of this phumdi. The conservation measures taken up by the State has led to the rise of Sangai Population from a mere 14 animals in the year 1975 to 180 in the year 2003. The other area already declared as protected area besides Keibul Lamjao National Park is the Yangoupokpi - Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary with an area of 184.40 sq. km. It is situated at Chandel District and is located on the Indo-Malayan Zoogeographical Zone. The Malayan Sun Bear is found in this wildlife sanctuary.The State is very rich in bio-diversity, large areas are still virgin forests. These are the habitats of very rare plants of rich medicinal value like Taxus baccata, ginseng, etc. It is also the home of many rare orchids and ferns.IrrigationMajor and Medium Irrigation had been introduced in the State from 1980. So far 8 (eight) Major and Medium Irrigation & Multipurpose Projects have been taken up, of which 5 (five) projects had been completed up to the end of Eighth Plan.Irrigation potential of 28,500 Ha has been created with utilisation of 21,850 Ha. In addition 1,200 Ha and 900 Ha of low lying areas ofLoushipat and Poiroupat respectively has been reclaimed by Thoubal Project. Running & Maintenance Schemes are on the pipe line for bridging the gap between potential created and actual utilised. 4 MGD of raw water is supplied to the State Public Health Engineering Department from Singda Multipurpose Project for water supply. 5 MGD of raw water is also being supplied from Khuga Multipurpose Project to state PHED from 2007.At present, the State Government has given special attention to accelerate the progress of the three ongoing projects and to achievecompletion of Khuga Multipurpose Project in 2006, Thoubal Multipurpose Project and Dolaithabi Barrage in 2008. The State Government is continuing investigation works for taking up new projects under State Plan as well as funding by NEC.Commerce and IndustriesHandloom industry is the largest cottage industry providing maximum employment in the state. This industry has been flourishing since time immemorial. One of the special features of the industry is that women are the only weavers. Food Processing is another popular industry in Manipur. In view of the importance of the industry, State Government has established a Food Processing Training Centre and Food Processing Training Hall at Imphal. A food Park is also being set up at Imphal. Border trade between India and Myanmar had been introduced form 1995. The Department of Commerce and Industries of the State Government has been acting as a liaisoning agent for promotion and development of Border Trade. To promote Border Trade, the Warehouse, Conventional Hall and Stay Facility Centre have been set up at border town Moreh. The Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) Camp office has been opened in the Directorate of Commerce & Industries Complex, Imphal. A Trade Centre has also been established at Imphal.PowerThe installed capacity of the State is over 42,750 and more than 2,000 villages have been electrified. Power supply position showed a marked improvement with the availability of power from the Central Sector Generating Stations, i.e., Loktak HE Project (NHPC), Kopili HE Project, Khandong HE Project, Doyang HE Project, Rangnadi HE Project and AGBPP, Kathalguri and AGTPP, Ramchandranagar (all NEEPCO). Commerce and Industry The State Government continues to exert all its efforts as a facilitator for industrialisation of the State with due emphasis on the prospective and potential areas. Handloom is the most popular traditional industry providing maximum employment in the State. With the introduction of Border Trade between India and Myanmar in 1995, the Department of Commerce and Industries of the State Government has been acting as a liaisoning agent for promotion and development of Border Trade. TransportRoads: Imphal, the capital of Manipur is joined by road (NH-39) with Nagaland on the north, and Myanmar on the east, Assam on the west by NH-53, and Mizoram on the south by NH-150.The State has 7,599 km of roads, both metalled and unmetalled. The length of roads consists of National Highway 967 km, State Highway 675 km, District roads 1,977 km and Village roads 4,947 km.Aviation: Imphal airport is the only airport, which is linked with other stations in the region by Indian Airlines, Jet Airways and Alliance Air. The Indian Airlines flights connect Imphal with Guwahati and New Delhi, while Jet Airways Flights connect Imphal with Guwahati and Kolkata. Alliance Air connects Imphal with Aizawal, Silchar, Kolkata and Guwahati.Railways: The State is included in the railway map of India with the opening of a rail head at Jiribam in May 1990. It is 225 km from Imphal. Dimapur, 215 km from Imphal is the nearest rail-head. The Prime Minister of India laid foundation stone for a new railway line ( Jiribam - Tupul Railway line) on 20 November 2004. The survey works for construction of the railway line has been completed.FestivalsA year in Manipur represents a cycle of festivities. Hardly a month passes by without a festival. Important festivals of the State are: Dol-jatra, Lai haraoba, Rasa Leela, Cheiraoba, Ningol Chakouba, Rath-Jatra, Id-ul-Fitr, Imoinu Iratpa, Gaan-Ngai, Lui-Ngai-ni, Id-ul-Zuha, Yaoshang (Holi), Durga Puja, Mera Houchongba, Diwali, Kut and Christmas, etc. Tourist Centres Blessed with a salubrious climate and landscapes languishing in natural beauty and scenic splendour, the state extends to the tourists a warm welcome to visit again and again. Some important tourist centres in Manipur are: Shree Govindajee temple, Khwairamband Bazar (Ima Keithel), War cemeteries, Shaheed Minar, Nupi Lan (Women’s War) Memorial Complex, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Bishnu Temple at Bishnupur, Sendra, Moreh, Siroy Village, Siroy Hills, Dzuko Valley, State Museum, Kaina Tourist Home, Khongjom War Memorial Complex, etc.
Meghalaya Area : 22,429 sq km Population : 2,318,822 Capital : Shillong Principal Languages : Khasi, Garo and English History and Geography Meghalaya was created as an autonomous state within the state of Assam on 2 April, 1970. The full-fledged State of Meghalaya came into existence on 21 January, 1972. It is bound on the north and east by Assam, and on the south and west by Bangladesh. Meghalaya, literally meaning the abode of clouds, is essentially a hilly state. It is predominantly inhabited by the Khasis, the Jaintias, and the Garo tribal communities. The Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills, which form the central and eastern part of Meghalaya, is an imposing plateau with rolling grasslands, hills and river valleys. The southern face of the plateau is marked by deep gorges and abrupt slopes, at the foot of which, a narrow strip of plain land runs along the international border with Bangladesh.Agriculture and Irrigation Meghalaya is basically an agrarian state, in which about 80 per cent of the population depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood. The State has a vast potential for developing horticulture due to agro-climatic variations, which offer much scope for cultivation of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical fruits and vegetables.Besides the major food crop of rice and maize, Meghalaya is renowned for its oranges (Khasi Mandarian), pineapple, banana, jackfruits, temperate fruits like plum, pears and peaches, etc. Cash crops, popularly and traditionally cultivated include potato, turmeric, ginger, black pepper, arecanut, betelvine, tapioca, short staple cotton, jute and mesta, mustard and rapeseed. Special emphasis is presently laid on the non-traditional crops, like oilseeds (groundnut, soyabean and sunflower), cashewnut, tea and coffee mushroom, medicinal plants, orchids and commercial flowers.IndustriesThe Meghalaya Industrial Development Corporation Limited, as the Industrial and Financial Institution of the State, has been rendering financial assistance to the local entrepreneurs. District Industries Centres have been working in the field for the promotion and development of small-scale, village, tiny and cottage industries. A number of industrial projects have been set up for themanufacture of iron and steel materials, cement and other industrial products.FestivalsA five-day long religious festival of the Khasis, Ka Pamblang Nongkrem, popularly known as Nongkrem dance is held annually at village Smit, 11 km from Shillong Shad Suk Mynsiem another important festival of the Khasis, is held at Shillong, during the second week of April. Behdeinkhlam, the most important and colourful festival of the Jaintias is celebrated annually at Jowai in Jaintia Hills in July. Wangala festival is observed for a week to honour Saljong (Sun God) of the Garos during October-November. TransportRoads: Six national highways pass through Meghalaya. The State has 7,860.16 km of both surfaced and unsurfaced roads under PWD.Aviation: The only airport of the Meghalaya state is in Umroi, 35 km from Shillong.Tourist Centres Meghalaya is dotted with a number of lovely tourist spots, where nature unveils herself in all her glory. Shillong, the capital city, has a number of beautiful spots. They are Ward’s Lake, Lady Hydari Park, Bishop Beadon Falls, Elephant Falls, Umiam Lake, Mini Zoo and Shillong Peak overlooking the city and the Shillong Golf Course, which is one of the best in the country.
Mizoram Area : 21,081 sq km Population : 891,058 Capital : Aizawl Principal Languages : Mizo and English History and Geography Mizoram is a mountainous region, which became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987. It was one of the districts of Assam till 1972 when it became a Union Territory. After being annexed by the British in 1891, for the first few years, Lushai Hills in the north remained under Assam, while the southern half remained under Bengal. Both these parts were amalgamated in 1898 into one district called Lushai Hills District under the Chief Commissioner of Assam. With the implementation of the North-Eastern Reorganisation Act in 1972, Mizoram became a Union Territory and as a sequel to the signing of the historic memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front in 1986, it was granted statehood on 20 February, 1987. Sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and the south, and Bangladesh in the west, Mizoram occupies an area of great strategic importance in the north-eastern corner of India. Mizoram has great natural beauty and an endless variety of landscape. It is rich in fauna and flora. The origin of the word ‘Mizo’ is not known. The Mizos came under the influence of the British Missionaries in the 19th Century. Now most of the Mizos are Christians. Mizo language has no script of its own. The missionaries introduced the Roman script for the Mizo language and formal education. Literacy in the state has grown rapidly, and Mizoram literacy at 88.8 per cent today, is the second highest in the country. The state government is striving hard to attain the top position in the near future.Cloudy day taken on 2004 View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
AgricultureAbout 80 per cent of the people of Mizoram are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The main pattern of agriculture followed is Jhum or Shifting cultivation. Of the total 21 lakh ha. of land estimated, 6.30 lakh hectares of land is available for cultivation of horticulture crops. The existing area under different horticulture crops account for about 4127.6 hectares, which is only 6.55 per cent of the estimated potential area. This indicates the vast scope for horticulture crops to flourish in Mizoram. The main horticulture crops are fruit crops viz. Mandarin Orange, Banana, Passion Fruit, Grapes, Hatkora, Pineapple, Papaya, etc., and flowers like Anthurium, Bird of Paradise, Orchid, Chrysanthemum, Rose and other subsidiary seasonal flowers. Spices like Ginger, Turmeric, Black Pepper and Bird’s eye Chillies are also grown. People have also started extensive cultivation of oilpalm, medicinal and aromatic plants.IrrigationThe ultimate surface irrigation potential is estimated at 70,000 hectares of which 45,000 hectares is under flow and 25,000 hectares by construction and completing 70 pucca minor irrigation projects and six lift irrigation projects for raising double and triple crops in a year.IndustryThe entire Mizoram is a Notified Backward Area and was categorised under ‘No Industry District’ in mid seventies. With the announcement of State Industrial Policy 1989, few modern small-scale industries have come up during the past decade. To further accelerate growth of industries, a New Industrial Policy of Mizoram was announced in the year 2000. The Policy identified thrust areas like Electronics and Information Technology, Bamboo and Timber based products, Food and Fruit Processing, Textiles, Handloom and Handicrafts, etc.In order to attract investment from outside the state, the Policy permits joint venture for all large, medium and small scale industries with local partners. Infrastructural development like Industrial Growth Centre (IGC) at Luangmual, Aizawl, Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Lengte, Integrated Infrastructural Development Centre (IIDC) at Pukpui, Lunglei and Food Park at Chhingchhip are nearing completion, apart from upgradation of the existing industrial estates.Scientific cultivation of Tea has also been taken up. Establishment of Apparel Training and Design Centre, Gems cutting and polishing are in the pipeline to encourage setting up of Export Oriented Units (EOUs). Of the cottage industries, Handloom and Handicrafts are given high priority and the two sectors are flourishing to meet consumers demand in the state and in the neighbouring states of Meghalaya, Nagaland, etc.With the opening up of border trade with Myanmar and Bangladesh, and the ‘Look East Policy’ of the Government of India coupled by peaceful condition of the state, Mizoram will no more be a remote corner state of the country, and as a result of which industrialisation will substantially gain momentum in the near future.PowerConstruction of Tuirial HEP (60 MW) is in progress. Survey and investigation works of Kolodyne HEP (500 MW) is completed by CWC. This project provides inland water transport facilities for the region besides generating 500 MW of power and the Government of Mizoram has given paramount importance to it. 3 MW capacity Tuipanglui and Kau-Tlabung SHPs were commissioned recently thus enhancing the state’s hydro generation by 15 MW capacity. Works on Maicham-II (3MW), Serlui ‘B’ (12MW) and Lamsial (0.5 MW) SHPs are in progress and expected to be commissioned during 2007.TransportTotal road length in the state is 5,982.25 km (BRO & State PWD). Rail link in the state has been established at Bairabi. Aizawl is connected by air. In order to have a better connectivity, the Government has undertaken the Mizoram State Roads Projects with a total cost of Rs 350 crore under funds provided by the World Bank. Connectivity under PMGSY covering a total length of 2,421 km connecting 384 villages of Mizoram is making steady progress.FestivalsMizoram is basically an agriculture-based state. All the activities of Mizos centre around Jhum cultivation, and their festivals are linked with such agricultural operations. Kut is the Mizo word for festival. Mizos have three major festivals called Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kut.Tourist Centres Aizawl is located at nearly 4,000 ft above sea level, and is a religious and cultural centre of Mizoram. Champhai is a beautiful resort on the Myanmar border. Tam Dil, a natural lake with virgin forests, is 60 km from Aizawl and 10 km from Tourist Resort of Saitual. Vantawng Falls, 5 km from hill station Thenzawl, are the highest and most beautiful waterfalls in Mizoram. The Department of Tourism has opened Tourist Lodges at Aizawl, Lunglei, Champhai, Saiha, Lawngtlai and wayside restaurants at Thingdawl, Hnahthial, Kawlkulh, recreational centre at Beraw Tlang and Alpine Picnic Hut at District Park near Zobawk.
Nagaland Area : 16,579 sq km Population : 1,988,636 Capital : Kohima Principal Languages : Angami, Ao, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sangtam, Sema andChakhesang. History and Geography Nagaland, the 16th state of the Indian Union, was established on 1 December 1963. It is bounded by Myanmar on the East, Arunachal Pradesh on the North, Assam on the West, and Manipur on the South. It lies between the parallels of 98 degree and 96 degree East longitude, and 26.6 degree and 27.4 degree latitude North of the Equator.The state of Nagaland has an area of 16.579 sq km with a population of 19,88,636 as per the 2001 census. The state is mostly mountainous except those areas bordering Assam valley. Mount Saramati is the highest peak in Nagaland with a height of 3,840 metres, and its range forms a natural barrier between Nagaland and Myanmar.The Naga people belong to the Indo-Mongoloid group of people living in the contiguous areas of the North Eastern hills of India and the upper portion of Western Myanmar. The major-recognised tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Kuki, Konyak, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchungru and Zeliang. The Naga languages differ from tribe to tribe, and sometimes even from one village to another. They are, however, under the Tibeto-Burma family.In the 12th and 13th Centuries, gradual contacts with the Ahoms of present day Assam was established, but this did not have any significant impact on the traditional Naga way of life. However, in the 19th Century, the British appeared on the scene and ultimately the area was brought under British administration. After independence, this territory was made a centrally administered area in 1957 administered by the Governor of Assam. It was known as the Naga Hills Tuensang Area. This failed to quell popular aspirations and unrest began. Hence, in 1961, this was renamed as Nagaland and given the status of State of the Indian Union, which was formally inaugurated on 1 December 1963.AgricultureNagaland is basically a land of agriculture. About 70 per cent of the population depends on agriculture. The contribution of agricultural sector in the state is very significant. Rice is the staple food. It occupies about 70 per cent of the total area under cultivation and constitutes about 75 per cent of the total food production in the state.The major land use pattern is slash and burn cultivation locally known as Jhum. Area under jhum cultivation is about 1,01,400 hectare and under terraced cultivation. The total food production during the year was 3,86,300 MT.Out of the total land area of 16,57,587 hectares, forest area occupy approximately 8,35,436. There are wild life sanctuaries and national park, namely, Intanki and Puliebadze in Kohima District, Fakim in Tuensang and Rangapahar in Dimapur.PowerAccording to the 1981 census, Nagaland achieved cent per cent electrification in the rural areas. Nagaland has so far achieved 100 per cent village electrification reaching even the remotest village of the state.IrrigationThere is no major or medium irrigation project so far constructed in the State. The irrigation works are mostly meant to divert small hill streamlets to irrigate valleys used for rice cultivation. The total area under irrigation covers 93,231.43 hectares.TransportRoads: The total length of roads in Nagaland is 9,860 km, which includes national highways, state highways, district and village roads. More than 900 villages in the State are linked by roads.Railways & Aviation: Dimapur is the only place in the State from where air and train services are available. There is a tri-weekly Indian Airlines service connecting Dimapur with Kolkata.FestivalsMusic and dances are an intrinsic part of Naga life. Folk songs and ballads eulogising bravery, beauty, love, generosity, etc., are transmitted from generation to generation. Likewise, dancing is an integral part of every festive occasion. Feasting, singing, dancing and merrymaking invariably accompany festivals. Some of the important festivals are Sekrenyi, Moatsu, Tokhu Emong and Tuluni.IndustriesThe process of industrialisation in the state is in its infancy, but the need to have more industries has been well recognised. Nagaland Mechanised Bricks Co. Ltd., in Dimapur with one lakh capacity of bricks per day has been commissioned. Handloom and handicrafts are important cottage capacity industries, which are mainly being managed by cooperative societies. The Nagaland Handloom and Handicrafts Development Cooperation Ltd., in Dimapur is the state owned Corporation, which is responsible for promotion and marketing of handloom and handicraft products in the state. The Nagaland Industrial Development Corporation is the premier promotional organisation in providing guidance and capital assistance to entrepreneurs. The 50 TPD Mini Cement Plant at Wazeho in Phek district has commenced production. The fruits and vegetables processing and cold storage plant at Dimapur has an installed capacity of processing 5 MT of fruits and vegetables per day and 300 MT cold storage facility.TourismWith the opening of the state to the international tourist by relaxation of Restricted Area Permit (RAP), a good number of foreign tourists, as well as domestic tourists visit Nagaland every year.The HORNBILL festival conceived by the Tourism Department and held in the first week of December, is an annual event where all tribes of Nagaland come together to celebrate, exhibit and sell their traditional wares, foodstuffs and crafts. Three traditional festivals, namely, Sekrenyi at Touphema in Kohima district (Feb. 26-27), Monyu at Pongo in Longleng Sub-division (April 1-3) and Moatsu at Chuchuyimlang in Mokokchung district (May 1-3) have been identified as festival destinations.
There are wild life sanctuaries and national parks, namely, Intanki and Puliebadze in Kohima District, Fakim in Tuensang and Rangapahar in Dimapur.
Area : 1,55,707 sq km Population : 36,804,660 Capital : Bhubaneswar Principal Languages : Oriya History and Geography Orissa, the land of Oriyas, was known as Kalinga in ancient days. In the third century BC (261 BC), Ashoka the Mauryan emperor sent a powerful force to conquer Kalinga, which offered stubborn resistance. Kalinga was subdued but the carnage, which followed, struck Ashoka with remorse. After the death of Ashoka, Kalinga regained its independence. In the second century BC, it became a powerful country under Kharavela. With the death of Kharavela, Orissa passed into obscurity. In the fourth century AD, Samudragupta invaded Orissa, which lay astride his path and overcame resistance offered by five of its kings. In 610 AD, Orissa came under the sway of King Sasanka. After Sasanka’s death, Harsha conquered Orissa.Orissa had its own rulers (Ganga dynasty) in the seventh century AD. In 795 AD, Mahasivagupta Yajati II came to the throne and with him began the most brilliant epoch in the history of Orissa. He united Kalinga, Kangoda, Utkal and Koshala in the imperial tradition of Kharavela. Under the kings of Ganga dynasty, Orissa continued to flourish. Narasingha Dev of this dynasty is reputed to have built the unique Sun Temple of Konark. From Mid-16th Century, Orissa was ruled successively by five Muslim kings till 1592, when Akbar annexed it into the Mughal Empire. With the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Marathas occupied Orissa. They continued to hold it till the British took over in 1803.Orissa was made into a separate province on 1 April, 1936. After Independence, princely states in and around Orissa surrendered their sovereignty to the Government of India. By the States Merger (Governor’s provinces) Order 1949, the princely states of Orissa were completely merged with the state of Orissa in January 1949. Although the state of Orissa had many ancient names like Kalinga, Utkal and Udra, it is widely known as the land of Lord Jagannath. Lord Jagannath is intimately connected with the social, cultural and religious life of Orissa. Jainism, Islam and Christianity have considerable impact on the people of Orissa in different periods.Orissa is situated in the north-eastern part of the Indian peninsula. It is bound by the Bay of Bengal on the east, West Bengal on the north-east, Jharkhand on the north, Chhattisgarh on the west, and Andhra Pradesh on the south. The state may be broadly divided into four geographical regions-the northern plateau, central river basin, eastern hills and coastal plains.AgricultureAgriculture occupies a vital place in the economy of the state. It contributes 28 per cent of the net domestic product of the state. 65 per cent of the total work force directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture. Rice is the principal food grain and its production during 2004-05 was 65.37 lakh metric tonnes. Sugarcane cultivation has been widely accepted by the farmers.Priority has been accorded to Agriculture extension through application of high-end Crop Production Technologies, adoption of Integrated Nutrient Management and Pest Management practices. 12.5 lakh grafts of various fruits, 10 lakh grafts of cashew and 2.5 lakh vegetables minikits supplied to farmers. To promote onion crops in the state, 300 quintals of quality onion seeds distributed to cover 7,500 acres of land. Under National Horticulture Mission, 2525 demonstrations on rose, gladioli and marigold held to encouragefloriculture. A target of 60,000 demonstrations set for the next year. To ensure minimum support price to farmers a target of 20 lakh MTs of rice set to be procured through Orissa State Civil Supplies Corporation Ltd., PACs, MARKFED & NAFED and millers under levy route. In developing micro watersheds in drought prone areas, 2413 micro-watersheds are being developed with a treatable area of 13 hectares.Irrigation and Power Irrigation potential has been created through major, medium, minor irrigation and water harvesting project up to 2696.00 thousand hectares by the end of year 2004-05. To drive more benefit and smooth management of irrigtion potential Government has implemented Pani Panchayata Yojana and Biju Krushak Bikash Yojana.During 2005-06, six irrigation projects were identified for completion with a targeted irrigation potential of 12685 hectares, of which four projects were already completed. During 2005-06, Orissa Lift Irrigation Corporation (OLIC) completed 500 new LI Points under Biju Krushak Vikas Yojana and created an additional irrigation potential of 10,000 hectares. About 13,397 Pani Panchayats formed in the State by January 2006 covering an area of 10.40 lakh hectares. Out of these, 11,583 Pani Panchayats have taken over operation and maintenance of irrigation system covering an area of 7.81 lakh hectares.The total installed capacity of power in states sector during 2004-05 was 4,845.34 MW the power available from all sources was 1,995.82 MW. Out of 46,989 inhabited villages in the state 37,744 villages have been electrified till the end of March 2005.Under Minimum Need Programme (MNP), 4696 villages, hamlets and dalit bastis were programmed to be electrified. Of this, electrification of 2965 villages and hamlets completed by December 2005. Being a surplus state in electricity production, surplus power to the tune of Rs. 420 crore was sold to Power Trading Corporation and National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam through GRIDCO by December 2006. 7 projects with estimated cost of Rs. 592 crore approved by Govt. of India for implementation of Accelerated PowerDevelopment and Reforms Programme (APDRP). Highly efficient Orissa Power Generation Corporation (OPGC) paid a dividend of Rs. 31.25 crore to the State Government during 2005-06 (Interim).IndustryThe Industrial Promotion and Investment Corporation Limited, Industrial Development Corporation Limited and Orissa State Electronics Development Corporation are the three nodal agencies for promotion of large and medium industries in the State. A number of mega industrial projects in sectors like steel, alumina/aluminia, oil refining, fertilizers, etc. involving large investmentare in the pipeline. The state is providing institutional and financial support with various incentives and concessions for promotion of small-scale village and cottage industries. By the end of 2004-2005 about 83.075 small-scale industries were set up in the State.POSCO, a South Korean steel giant, entered into a MoU with Government of Orissa to set up a steel plant having a production capacity of 12 MTPA with an investment of about US $ 12 billion. The flagship Aditya Birla Group plans to setup a 1 MTPA Alumina refinery with smelter. Orissa Mining Corporation set itself a prodcution target of 51.20 lakh tonnes of minerals in 2005-06. Thisrepresents 33 per cent increase over the previous year. Iron Ore production slated to touch 43 lakh tonnes in 2005-06, representing an increase of 40 per cent over the previous year.To accelerate industrial development, employment opportunties and economic growth a single window clearance mechanism introdcued by enacting Orissa Industries (facilitation) Act, 2004 ensuring time-bound clearance of investment proposals and ratonalisation of inspections. In order to support massive investments, top priority was accorded to improvement in infrastructural facilities. For creating quality infrastructure development in IT sector, an export promotion industrial park set up at Bhubaneswar. In promoting small and medium enterprises in the State, 2255 small industries were set up during 2005-06 with an investment of Rs. 123.23 crore providing employment to approximately 10,308 persons.Full medical care has been extended to the industrtial labourers and their family members through a network of ESI hospitals and dispensaries. Rs. 1,02,66,000 approved for payment for the year 2005-06 towards reimbursement cost of treatment of ESI beneficiaries from Revolving Corpus Fund. Child labours employed in hazardous jobs were released and admitted under National Child Labour Project Scheme for being imparted formal education and vocational training. 18 Child Labour Projects are functioning in18 districts of the State. 33,843 child labourers were admitted in speical schools run by National Child Labour Projects and 64,885 child labourers were mainstreamed to formal schooling system. Minimum Wages Payable to unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled and highly skilled categories of workers increased. Under the direct supervision of Chief Minister, State Employment Mission in association with Directorate of Technical Education and Training, launched vocational training programmes for both educated and semi-educatedunemployed youth. 4225 candidates are being trained for skilling and reskiling in various market-friendly courses.Information TechnologyThe State is making significant strides in Information Technology sector. MOUs signed with TCS and Wipro to set up Development Centres at Infocity in Bhubaneswar. Other companies like Hexaware Technologies & Mind Free Consulting are keen to invest in the state. All these companies are expected to directly employ about 5000 software professonals by 2007-08 besides creatingsubstantial indirect employment. An e-procurement system initiated jointly by Government of Orissa, National Institute of Smart Governance (NISG) and National Informatics Centre (NIC) to bring in a transparent and efficientsystem of tendering and procurement. State Wide Area Network (SWAN), a core e-Governance infrastructure under implementation to connect the State headquarters with all district headquarters, Sub-Division headquarters, block headquaretrs with a 2 mbps dedicated line. The Oriya language pack under the programme "Technology Development for Indian languages" to enable Oriya Language computing completed. Project e-sishu aiming at creating a database of the 3 pillars of education, namely, children, teachers and school was taken up by OPEPA and jointly being executed with OCAC. This would help achieving our goal of universalisation of primary education and ensuring that no child of the state is left out of school.TourismAcknowledging the importance of tourism promotion in economic growth of the State, Media Management Agencies and event managers were identified to take up publicity and promotion professionally. A new logo has been adopted to re-position and rebrand Orissa as a vibrant tourist destination. Various strategic tourism projects such as Peace Park at Dhauli, infrastructure development in Buddhist circuit comprising Lalitgiri, Udayagiri, Ratnagiri & Langudi and tourism development of Pipili were taken up. For promotion and marketing, a slew of tourism fairs and festivals such as Sreekhetra Utsav at Puri, Ekamra Utsav at Bhubaneswar, Konark Festival at Konark being supported showcasing the tourism and cultural potential of the State. Orissa Tourism particiapted in travel-trade shows like Buddhist festival at Bangkok, Leisure Moscow at Moscow, WTM at London, PATA convention at Kuala Lumpur, IATO at Kochi, TTF at Kolkata, Road show at Raipur, etc. 373 guides were trained to promote private sector participation in tourism sector.Fisheries and Animal Resources DevelopmentFollowing the objectives set out in "State Agriculture Policy" and by adopting new scientific technology, emphasis was laid on milk, fish & meat production. Total milk production per day touches 36 lakh litres, up by 3 lakh litres. All 30 districts of the state are covered by Orissa Milk Federation (OMFED) to promote diary farming. OMFED increased it's milk procurement substantially to 2.70 lakh litres per day. Under STEP programme, OMFED is running 'Women Diary Projects' in 17 districts. 837 women diary cooperative societies comprising 60,287 women were also formed in the State.Under RLTAP, Rs. 350 lakh was released in the year 2005-06 for milk production and allied activities in KBK districts. For scientific pisciculture in reservoirs, a 'State Reservoir Fishery Policy' was approved. Under RLTAP, 13 resevoirs having water spread area of 5709 hectares were taken up for pisciculture development in KBK districts. During 2005-06, 101 reservoirs were taken up under pisciculture through Fishermen Cooperative Societies and Self-Help Groups.TransportDuring 2004-05 the total road length in the state was 2,37,332 km. comprising 3,595 km National Highway, 29 km state express highway, 5,102 km state highway, 3,189 km of major district roads, 6,334 km of other district roads, 27,882 km rural roads, 20,314 km panchayat samiti roads, 1,39,942 km G.P. roads, 7,298 km forest roads, 17,282 km urban roads, 6,277 km irrigation roads and 88 km GRIDCO roads.Railways : By the end of 31 March 2004 the state has 2,287 km railway route including 91 km of narrow gauge.Aviation: The expansion and modernisation of Bhubaneswar Airport is in progress. Direct link is available from Bhubaneswar to places like Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Nagpur, Mumbai and Hyderabad. There are 13 air strips and 16 helipads at different places of the State. Ports: Paradeep is the only major port of the State. Gopalpur has been developed as an all-weather port.Tourist Centres Bhubaneswar is famous for the Lingaraj Temple, while Puri is famous for the temple of Lord Jagannath and its beautiful sea beach. Other places of tourist interest in the State are Konark, Nandankanan, Chilka Lake, Dhauli Buddhist temple, Udaygiri-Khandagiri ancient caves, Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri and Udaygiri Buddhist images and caves, Saptasajya, Similipal National Park and Tiger Project, Hirakund dam, Duduma Water Falls, Ushakothi Wildlife Sanctuary, Gopalpur Sea beach, Hari Shankar, Narusinghnath, Taratarini, Taptapani, Bhitar Kanika, Bhimkunda, Kapilash, etc. Punjab Area : 50,362 sq km Population : 24,358,999 Capital : Chandigarh Principal Languages : Punjabi History and Geography Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region. In later years, it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryans, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Medieval Punjab witnessed the supremacy of the Muslims. Ghaznavi was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked a period of watershed in the history of Punjab. Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Sikhism began as a socio-religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa. They rose to challenge tyranny and after centuries of servitude, established a humane Punjabi Raj based on secularism and patriotism. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the words of a Persian writer, changed Punjab from Madam Kada to Bagh-Bahisht (from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise). But soon after his death, the entire edifice collapsed due to internal intrigues and British machinations. After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849. The fight against the British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival on the scene. The revolt found expression through the movement of a revivalist or reformist character. First, it was the Namdhari sect, which believed in self-discipline and self-rule. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the Freedom Movement. Punjab was in the vanguard of India’s freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad. Punjab’s hardships did not end with Independence, as it had to face the misery of Partition with large-scale bloodshed and migration. Besides their rehabilitation, there was the task of reorganisation of the State. Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form a single state called PEPSU—Patiala and the East Punjab States Union—with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab in 1956. Later in 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab. Situated in the north-western corner of the country, Punjab is bound on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the north-east by Himachal Pradesh, and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan. AgriculturePunjab State with only 1.5 per cent geographical area of country produces 22 per cent of Wheat 12 per cent of Rice and 12 per cent of Cotton in the country. The cropping intensity of Punjab State is more than 186 per cent which has earned a name of ‘‘Food basket of the country and granary of India.’’ It has been pooling 40-50 per cent of rice and 50-70 per cent of wheat for the last two decades. In Punjab per hectare consumption of fertilizer is 177 kg as compared to 90 kg at national level. Also Punjab State has been awarded National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for consecutively ten years from 1991-92 to 1998-99 and 2001 to 2003-04.IndustryThere are 2.04 lakh small-scale units in the State. These units produce bicycle parts, sewing machines, hand tools, machine tools, auto parts, electrical items, sports goods, surgical instruments, leather goods, hosiery, knitwear, nuts and bolts, textiles, sugar, vegetable oil, etc., giving employment to about 9.35 lakh persons. In large/medium sector there are 600 large/medium scale units. SNagar, Mohali in the vicinity of Chandigarh has emerged as an attractive destination for IT and IT enabled industries. Under the Industrial Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme (IIUS). Government of India has sanctioned two projects namely Knitwear Cluster and Bicycle Parts Cluster at Ludhiana for implementation in Punjab. The primary objective of the scheme is to enhance International Competitiveness of the domestic industry by providing quality infrastructure through public/private participation in clusters/locations which have greater potential to become globally competitive.IrrigationPunjab being an agrarian state, a very high priority is being given to agricultural Development. The water available in Punjab is much less as compared to the land potential. Therefore, to maximise production per unit of water resources, it is emphasised to utilise every drop of water available judiciously and carefully. Even Government of Punjab is taking up a number of projects for the diversification of crop. Due to better irrigation management, an additional 0.97 lakh hectare of area has been brought under cotton crop in various cotton growing districts of Punjab. The Geographical area of the State is 50.36 lakh hectares having a cultural area of 42.90 lakh hectares out of which 33.88 lakh hectares is commanded by a vast network of canal infrastructure having a length of 14,500 km of main and branch canals distributaries and minors.Ranjit Sagar Dam is a multipurpose river valley project which has been constructed 8 km upstream of Madhopur Head Works. It comprises of 160 metre high earth core-cum gravel shell dam on river Ravi with a gross potential to the tune of 3.48 lakh hectares of land. Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Project Phase II with credit assistance from World Bank has been completed. Irrigation potential of the existing irrigation system has been improved by completing the lining of 1,092 km length of channels, lining of 33,000 km of water courses and modernisation of 295 canal regulation structures have been completed under the World Bank Project. Rehabilitation of 1,260 km length of Channels and 53 km new Channels have also been completed with state funds. The number of projects for raising the capacity of 6 canal systems and raising the capacity of 3 canals of Bathinda Canal System amounting to Rs 18.83 crore have been completed.Project for remodeling of UBDC System to utilise additional supplies available on completion of Ranjit Sagar Dam has been taken up under AIBP Scheme. A total length of 298 km of main/branch canals out of 364.10 km and 1507 km length of lined/unlined distributaries/minors out of 1,557.25 km length provided in the project has since been completed at a cost of Rs 140 crore. For early completion of on-going UBDC Project, the balance work was taken up on war footing which the funds of Rs 20 crore were released by the State government. The bottleneck of feeding required discharges in Kasur Branch Lower and Sabraon Branch Canal Systems has removed by undertaking the remodeling of their parent channel, i.e., Kasur Branch Upper, thereby restoring adequate canal water supplies to the vast agricultural area of UBDC System.It is proposed to convert Banur Canal System from non-perennial to perennial for which the Project costing Rs 38.08 crore is under sanction of NABARD. Similarly, the Project for side lining Main Branch Canal costing Rs 39.55 crore is also under sanction of NABARD. Above all, a consolidated Project costing Rs 299.22 crore for increasing capacity of various channels of BML Canal System, Sirhind Canal System, Sirhind Feeder System, Bist Doab Canal System and Eastern Canal System has been proposed for funding byNABARD, under which an additional irrigation potential of 33,000 hectares besides providing better irrigation facilities and about 1,98,000 hectares is targeted, thereby giving boost to food grain production in the State.The backward Kandi Area in Punjab has been developed by construction of 11 Low Dams irrigating area of 12000 hectares and completion of Kandi canal will irrigate are of 19867 hectares bringing on green revolution to the area. 1615 deep tubewell for irrigation purposes and additional length of 3905 km water courses stands lined on the state. The impact water table in the southern part of state of Punjab has been reduced by construction of new drains and renovating of existing 8000 km of drain, 1800 km of flood protection embankments and about 3800 river training work have also been completed. Installation of shallow tubewells along Sirhind Feeder in the most critical areas also helped arresting the seepage from the Canal. On the irrigation front about 60 per cent of the total irrigated land is served private/ government tubewells and remaining 40 per cent is irrigated through canals.PowerThe construction of Bhakra Nangal Complex including Bhakra Dam, Bhakra Main line, Nangal Hydel Channel, Ganguwal and Kotla Power House, Harike Barrage, Sirhind Feeder, remodelling of Madhopur Headwork into Barrage, etc., and Beas Dam at Pong have been some of the major Irrigation and Hydroelectric Projects which have played a significant role in considerable enhancing the irrigation and power potential of the State. Madhopur Beas Link was constructed to transfer surplus water of Ravi to Beas. A similar Beas- Satluj Link Project envisages the utilisation of the Beas water for the production of electricity at Slapper and then transferring this water to Gobind Sagar lake. The Mukerian and Anandpur Sahib Hydroelectric projects are two important irrigation and power projects.Ranjit Sagar Dam is multipurpose River Valley Project, comprising a 160 metre high earth core cum gravel shell dam on river Ravi, with a gross storage capacity of a reservoir as 3,280 million cusecs. It provides additional irrigation potential of 3.48 lakh hectares of land. All the four units of Ranjit Sagar Dam (4 x 150 MW) have been commissioned successfully. Annual generation from this project shall be 2,100 MU’s out of which 4.6 per cent of energy generated shall be supplied free of cost to Himachal Pradesh and 20 per cent energy generated shall be supplied to J&K at genuine cost. By the completion of this dam water of all three rivers allocated to Punjab under Indus Water Treaty will be harnessed. About Rs 500 crore per annum has started accruing and this project is likely to cover its own cost by the next four to five years.PedaPunjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA) has implemented a special programme of 2HP Solar Photovoltaic. Water Sets for irrigation purposes in the state with financial assistance of Rs 41.45 crore from the Ministry of Non- Conventional Energy Sources, Government of India. So far 1,700 of such solar water pumps sets have been installed in the state share FY 2000-01. Another 700 of solar pumps sets are under execution. PEDA has also taken up the execution of eight Mini Hydel Projects with a total capacity 9.8 MW on canal falls as technology demonstration projects. Another 44 Micro Hydel Projects with a total capacity of 36 MW have been allocated to private sector on BOO basis.PEDA has also commissioned 200 kwp Solar Photovoltaic Grid Interactive Power Plant at village Khatkar Kalan, Distt. Nawanshahar at a total cost of Rs 4.5 crore with 67 per cent grant from MNES Govt. of India. This project has been dedicated to the nation on 23 March 2003 by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Hon’ble President of India. PEDA has also been sanctioned 1 MW Biomethanation cattle dung based demonstration power project at Haebowal Dairy Complex (Ludhiana). The cost of this project is Rs 14 crore (approx). MNEX has provided 50 per cent grant for this project. This project was commissioned on 3 November 2004. The work of Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy on Jalandhar-Kapurthala Road with grant of Rs 38 crore from MNES, is also under execution.TransportRoads: Public Works Department Building and Roads branch has been responsible for assets of State Government in terms of roads, bridges and buildings.The total Network Length is 50,506 km. Punjab Roads and Bridges Development Board was established as a statutory body in 1998 with the enactment of PRBDB Act (No. 22) of 1998 with a basic aim of mobilising additional resources for state roads.Railways: The length of the rail routes passing through the State is around 3,726.06 km. Rail communication with Pakistan also emanates from Punjab (Amritsar). Aviation: There are Four Civil Aviation Clubs at Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar and Jalandhar, one domestic airport at Chandigarh; International Airport at Rajasansi (Amritsar) and two aerodromes at Patiala and Sahnewal (Ludhiana). Fairs and Festivals Besides festivals of Dussehra, Diwali, Holi, other important festivals/fairs/melas are Maghi Mela at Mukatsar, Rural Sports at Kila Raipur, Basant at Patiala, Hola Mohalla at Anandpur Sahib, Baisakhi at Talwandi Saboo, Urs at Rauza Sharif at Sirhind, Chappar Mela at Chappar, Sheikh Farid Agam Purb at Faridkot, Ram Tirath at Village Ram Tirath, Shaheedi Jor Mela at Sirhind, Harballah Sangeet Sammelan at Jalandhar and Baba Sodal at Jalandhar. In addition to above fairs and festivals, 3 heritage festivals at Amritsar, Patiala, Kapurthalla are also celebrated every year and are very popular among the tourists. TourismPunjab is recognised as the granary of India and also enjoy, a fairly high per capita income. However, the State has to infuse additional funds for ensuring balanced development. Tourism, International and domestic, offers the best prospects of helping the State both in the short term and on a long term basis earn substantial amount of revenue for meeting necessary requirements of the State. It has to be recognised that tourism not only generates employment, it also upgrades human skills and the infrastructure created for tourism is used by all other sectors of the economy. Therefore, development of tourism must not be viewed in isolation and the State must adopt an integrated approach for its development. Since tourism is a composite sector, its development presupposes participation of different agencies and necessitates cooperation and coordination at different level. The State recognises that uncontrolled growth of tourism can damage not only our cultural heritage but also our social and cultural values. Therefore, the State would introduce suitable legislation for an orderly and regulated growth of tourism and promotion of culture of Punjab.The State Government has announced new Tourism Policy to develop tourism as the major industry of Punjab by providing leadership and organisational and strategic direction, to improve the quality of the tourism product, to develop places of tourist interest, to provide necessary facilities for all categories of tourist and pilgrims, to market Punjab Tourism products internationally and domestically so as to provide employment and for the economic, environment, social and cultural benefit of our citizens with thefollowing objectives to achieve the desired results envisaged in the document.The State has a large number of places of tourist interest some of which include Golden Temple, Durgiana Mandir, Jallianwala bagh in Amritsar, Takhat Sri Kesgarh Sahib and Khalsa Heritage Complex at Anandpur Sahib, Bhakra Dam, Qila Androon and Moti Bagh Palace at Patiala, Wetland at Harike Pattan Sanghol for archeological importance and Chattbir Zoo, Mugh. Complex at Aam Khas Bagh and Rauza Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed at Graves of Afghan Rules, Sodal Temple at Jalandhar commemorative Maharishi BalmikiHeritage.Bhangra - Folk Dance, Punjab View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
TourismThe Punjab Tourism Development Corporation is running 17 complexes, including 3 Hotel at Amritsar, 6 Filling stations and 4 Holiday Homes. In addition, 2 Complexes and one Banquet Hall at Pathankot have been given on lease/license to the private parties. Shops at Floating Restaurant, Sirhind, Tourist Complex, Ropar; Tourist Complex Madhopur and Tourist Complex, Moga have been licensed out to the private parties to run the gift shops. The state also has a large number of places of tourist interest, some of which include Golden Temple, Durgiana Mandir, Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Takhat Keshgarh Sahib and Khalsa Heritage Complex at Anandpur Sahib, Bhakhra Dam, Quila Androon and Moti Bagh Palace at Patiala, Wet land at Harike Pattan, Sanghol for archaeological importance and Chhatbir Zoo, Mughal Monument Complex at Aam Khas Bagh, and Roza Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed at Sirhind with graves of Afghan Rulers, Sodal Temple at Jalandhar, and Ram Tirath Commemorative Maharishi Balmiki’s heritage.

Rajasthan Area : 3,42,239 sq km Population : 56,473,122 Capital : Jaipur Principal Languages : Hindi and Rajasthani History and Geography Rajasthan, the largest State in India in terms of area, prior to independence, was known as Rajputana or the home of Rajputs—a martial community who ruled over this area for centuries.The history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3,000 and 1,000 BC, it had a culture akin to that of the Indus Valley Civilisation. It was the Chauhans who dominated Rajput affairs from seventh century and by 12th century, they had become an imperial power. After the Chauhans, it was the Guhilots of Mewar who controlled the destiny of the warring tribes. Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent states were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar, while the other states were only offshoots of these. All these states accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818, protecting the interest of the princes. This naturally left the people discontented.After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement. With the introduction of provincial autonomy in1935 in British India, agitation for civil liberties and political rights became stronger in Rajasthan. The process of uniting the scattered states commenced from 1948 to 1956, when the States Reorganisation Act was promulgated. First came Matsya Union (1948), consisting of a fraction of states. Slowly and gradually, other states merged with this Union. By 1949, major states like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaislmer joined this Union, making it the United State of Greater Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present state of Rajasthan formally came into being, with Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka, and Sunel Tappa joining it.The entire western flank of the state borders with Pakistan, while Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh bind Rajasthan in north, north-east, south-east and Gujarat in south-west.AgricultureTotal cultivable area in the State is 210.62 lakh hectares (2005-2006). The estimated food grain production is 118.26 lakh tonnes. Principal crops cultivated in the State are rice, barley, jowar, millet, maize ,gram, wheat, oilseeds, pulses, cotton and tobacco. Cultivation of vegetable and citrus fruits such as orange and malta has also picked up over last few years. Other crops are red chillies, mustard, cumin seeds, methi and hing.Industry and MineralsEndowed with a rich culture, Rajasthan is also rich in minerals and is fast emerging on the industrial scenario of the country. Some of the important Central undertakings are Zinc Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Copper Plant at Khetri Nagar (Jhunjhunu) and Precision Instrument Factory at Kota. Major industries are textiles and woollens, sugar, cement, glass, sodium plants, oxygen, vegetable dyes, pesticides, zinc, fertilizers, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and electricity metres, sulphuric acid, television sets, synthetic yarn and insulating bricks. Besides precious and semi-precious stones, caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyres, etc., are other important industrial units. Rajasthan has rich deposits of zinc concentrates, emerald, garnet, gypsum, silver ore, asbestos, felspar and mica. The State also abounds in salt, rock phosphate, marble and red stone deposits. The first Export Promotion Industrial Park of the country has been established and made operational at Sitapura (Jaipur). Irrigation and PowerBy the end of March 2005 irrigation potential of 32.07 lakh hectares was created in the state through various major, medium and minor irrigation projects. during the year 2005-06 and additional irrigation potential of 69,673 hectares ( excluding IGNP & CAD)has been created upto December 2005. The installes power capacity in the State has become 5385Mw upto March 2006 ofwhich 2885 Mw is produced from State own projects, 973 Mw from collaboration project and 1527 Mw from the allocation from Central power generating stations.TransportRoads: The total length of roads in the State is around 1,58,250 km. Railways: Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kota, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur are some of the main railway junctions. Aviation: Regular air services connect Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur with Delhi and Mumbai. FestivalsRajasthan is a land of festivals and fairs. Besides the national festivals of Holi, Deepawali, Vijayadashmi, Christmas, etc. birth anniversaries of Gods and Goddesses, saintly figures, folk heroes and heroines are celebrated. Important fairs are Teej, Gangaur (Jaipur), annual Urs of Ajmer Sherif and Galiakot, tribal Kumbh of Beneshwar (Dungarpur), Mahaveer fair at Shri Mahavirji in Swai Madhopur, Ramdeora (Jaisalmer), Janbheshwari Fair (Mukam-Bikaner), Kartik Poornima and Cattle Fair (Pushkar-Ajmer) and Shyamji Fair (Sikar), etc. Tourist Centres Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Mount Abu, Sariska Tiger Sanctuary in Alwar, Keoladeo National Park at Bharatpur, Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Pali and Chittorgarh are important places of tourist interest in the state.
Area : 7,096 sq km Population : 540,493 Capital : Gangtok Principal Languages : Lepcha, Bhutia, Limbu and Nepali History and Geography The early history of Sikkim starts in the 13th century with the signing of a blood-brotherhood treaty between the Lepcha Chief Thekong Tek and Tibetan prince Khye-Bumsa at Kabi Lungtsok in North Sikkim. This follows the historical visit of three revered Lamas to Yuksam in 1641 in West Sikkim, where they consecrated Phuntsog Namgyal, a sixth generation descendent of Khye-Humsa as the first Chogyal of Sikkim, thus heralding the beginning of the Namgyal dynasty in Sikkim. With the march of history, events in Sikkim saw the state pass through the process of democratisation and became an integral part of the Indian Union in 1975. Guru Padmasambhava blessed Sikkim enroute to Tibet. Sikkim is a blessed land, where people from all communities live in harmony. Inspite of the fact that Sikkim comprises of different people and multi ethnic society, perhaps it is the most peaceful state of the Indian Union to promote communal harmony and human relations, a feat which is much expected in a plural society like India.Sikkim is a small hilly state, bounded by vast stretches of Tibetan Plateaux in the North, the Chumbi Valley of Tibet and the Kingdom of Bhutan in the East, the Kingdom of Nepal in the West, and Darjeeling (West Bengal) in the South. The State has a total area of 7,096 sq km, and is stretched over 112 km from North to South, and 64 km from East to West. It lies in the North-Eastern Himalayas between 27 degree 00’46’’ to 28 degree 07’48’’ North Latitude, and 88 degree 00’58’’ to 88 degree 55’25’’ East Longitude.The world’s third highest mountain, Kanchenjunga, regarded as the guardian deity of Sikkim, dominates the tiny Himalayan State with its awe-inspiring beauty and majesty. Sikkim is one of the 18 bio diversity hotspots in the world. The Sikkim Himalayas show tremendous biological diversity. More than 5000 species of angiosperms are found in the State, which is nearly one third of the total species of angiosperm found in the country. There are 4,000 species of flowering plants, 300 species of ferns and allies, 450 to 500 species of orchids, 36 species of Rhododendrons, 40 species of oaks, 30 to 40 species of Primulas and bamboos, 144 species of mammals, 500 to 600 species of birds, over 400 species of butterflies and moths, and many species of reptiles in the State. Rare Blue Sheep, Tibetan Mastiff, Yaks and Red Pandas are found here.AgricultureThe State’s economy is basically agrarian. More than 64 per cent of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Agricultural land in Sikkim is estimated to be around 1,09,000 hectares, i.e., 15.36 per cent of the total geographical area. Farmers commonly follow mixed farming, which is ideally suited and fits well in the developmental process of making Sikkim an organic State. The State Government has drawn up plans to promote organic farming in Sikkim and see the further value addition in its agricultural and horticultural produces. Maize, rice, wheat, potato, large cardamom, ginger and orange are the principal crops. Sikkim has the largest area and highest production of large brown cardamom in India. Ginger, potato, orange and off-season vegetables are other cash crops.As per the Human Development Report-2001, land resources in Sikkim are constrained on account of demographic pressure (per capita availability) and activities that they can sustain. Diversification in the pattern of land use has to take into account both food security requirements and constraints imposed by the terrain. The limitations of terrace farming in terms of productivity, irrigation and the scope for extending cultivation highlight the constraints faced by farming for livelihood security. Under these conditionsinnovative practices in land management and horticulture and floriculture can be identified as growth sectors.IndustryThough Sikkim has been declared industrially backward state, the existence of craftsmanship based traditional Sikkimese cottage industries dates back to several centuries. Lepcha’s skill in bamboo-craft, woodwork, spinning of yarn and carpet weaving in traditional textures, Bhutia’s excellence in ancient Tibetan practice of carpet and rug weaving and Nepali’s celebrated craftsmanship of their metalwork, silverware and woodwork are very exclusive. The Department of Commerce and Industries lays emphasis on the promotion and development of various small-scale industries. New Industrial Policy, which was extended in the year 2003, provides special package for development of industries in the state on the lines of northeast industries policy. This includes excise and income tax exemption to all new industries as well as expansion of existing units for a period of ten years from the date of commencement of commercial production. In addition, the policy also entails granting of financial concessions to 12 identified thrust areas in industriesirrespective of where they are located in the state. The Government of Sikkim had organised two workshops at Delhi in 2003 to open up Sikkim as an investment destination and industrial growth.Sikkim Jewels limited is one of the sophisticated and precision oriented industries for the manufacture of jewel bearings for electric meters, water meters and other measuring instruments like watches and clocks. Ten ancillary units have been set up to manufacture watch jewels. The Sikkim Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Ltd., (SIDICO) was set up as the state level principal financial institution engaged in the promotion and financing of development in this sector. It provides long-term loans for cottage, tiny, small and medium scale industrial units, hotels, hospitals, nursing homes and taxis.Irrigation and Power Tenth Five Year Plan targets to irrigate 34,118 hectares of agricultural land. Many new irrigation schemes for providing assured water both for Kharif and Rabi cropping are taken up and to prevent damages to open channels owing to landslides and to ensure regular flow of water concrete hume pipes and HDPE pipes are used extensively in problem areas.Total installed capacity of power in the State is 36 MW that is hydro based with transformation capacity of 123 MVA. Rangeet hydel project has installed capacity of 560 MW. The total power potential of the state is estimated at 8,000 MW. Though only 0.2 per cent capacity was installed by the year 2001, four hydro projects with the total of 804 MW power are nearing completion in the state. More initiatives are being taken by the government to tap the full potential of the power in the state. The State is also open to privateinvestment in power sector. The Teesta V Project now under construction is run of the river scheme located in the East District and the proposed installed capacity of this project is 510 MW.Transport Roads: Gangtok is connected by roads with Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Siliguri, and also with all the district headquarters within Sikkim. The total road length of the state is 2,383 km, including 41 km of National Highway.Railways and Aviation: The closest railway stations are Siliguri (113) and New Jalpaiguri (125 km) connecting Kolkata, Delhi, Guwahati, Lucknow and other important cities. There is no airport in Sikkim, although there is a helicopter service between Gangtok and Bagdogra, heavily subsidised by the State Government. The State has also initiated construction of a number of helipads to connect the district and sub-divisional headquarters and important tourist places. Information Technology A new Information Technology Department has been created in the State, and has prepared extensive projects to give top priority to this department. The newly created department has already launched a number of Web sites on Sikkim, and is now aiming for e-governance through the use of information tools. The official Web site of Sikkim, hosted and maintained by the Department of Information Technology, Government of Sikkim, is FestivalsSikkim’s population comprises the three principal ethnic communities of the Bhutias, Lepchas and the Nepalese. Maghey Sankranti, Durga Puja, Laxmi Puja and Chaite Dassai/Ram Navami, Dassai, Tyohar, Sonam Losoong, Namsoog, Tendong Lho Rum Faat (Worship of Mt. Tendong), Lohsar (Tibetan New Year) are the major festivals. The other festivals include Sakewa (Rai), Sonam Lochar (Gurung), Barahimzong (Magor), etc.TourismSikkim is famous for its lush green vegetation, forest, scenic valleys and majestic mountains, and a range of rich and magnificent cultural heritage and peace loving people, which provide a safe haven for tourists. The State Government supports eco-friendly and pilgrim tourism and accordingly, has provided facilities to enable visitors to enjoy a first-hand experience of the rich heritage and lifestyle of Sikkim. Recognising the potential of adventure tourism, the State government is setting up a Himalayan Centre for Adventure Tourism at Chemchey Village in South Sikkim. The premier monastery of Sikkim is Pemayantshe in Pelling. Apart from this, there is Tashiding Monastery in West Sikkim, which is considered the holiest of all the monasteries in Sikkim. The most ancient monastery of Sikkim is in Yuksom, called the Drubdi monastery. It was the personal hermitage of Lhatsun Chenpo (Patron Saint of Sikkim), and was possibly built in 1700 AD. Some of the other monasteries are Phodong, Phensang, Rumtek, Ngadak, Tolung, Ahlay, Tsuklakhand, Ralong, Lachen, Enchey and others. Of the Hindu temples, the best known is the Thakurbari, in the heart of Gangtok. There is also a holy cave in South district, which has a Shiva Lingam that irradiates the cave where no other light finds its way. There are some important Gurdwaras and Mosques, chief among them being in Gangtok and Ravangla.
Tamil NaduArea : 1,30,058 sq km Population : 62,405,679 Capital : Chennai Principal Languages : Tamil History and Geography The State of Tamil Nadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early sangam classics throw historical references, we pass to recorded history only from the Pallavas.The southern states of India were under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita, in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of the 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountcy over South India.Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the Bahamani Sultanate, by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India, and at the close of the century, Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans. Even during the period of the tumultuous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’. East India Company, which had established its factory at Masulipatnam (now in Andhra Pradesh) in 1611, gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency, which covered the bulk of the southern peninsula in 1901. The composite Madras State was later reorganised, and the present Tamil Nadu was formed. Tamil Nadu is bounded on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, on the west by Kerala, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Indian Ocean. AgricultureAgriculture is the major occupation in Tamil Nadu. The principal food crops include paddy, millets and pulses. Commercial crops include sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chillies, gingelly and groundnut. Plantation crops are tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber. Major forest produces are timber, sandalwood, pulp wood and fuel wood. Tamil Nadu occupies a premier position in the production and extensive application of bio-fertilizers. Efforts are on to improve farming technologies so as to increase yields in the low rainfall areas of the State. Annual foodgrains production exceeds ten million tonnes with rice contributing an average eight million tonnes.Industry and Minerals Major Industries in Tamil Nadu are cotton, heavy commercial vehicles, auto components, railway coaches, power pumps, leather tanning industries, cement, sugar, paper, automobiles and safety matches. Knowledge based industries like I.T. and Biotechnology have become the thrust area in the industrial scene in Tamil Nadu. TIDEL, a software technology park, has been established in Tharamani, Chennai. Chennai has currently about 50,000 software professionals employed in 900 IT companies. Global auto majors Hyundai Motors, Ford, Hindustan Motors and Mitsubishi have commenced production plants. Ashok Leyland and TAFE have set up expansion plants in Chennai. Main mineral wealth of the state is granite, lignite and limestone. The state is an important exporter of tanned skin and leather goods, yarn, tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco, handicrafts and black granite. Tamil Nadu contributes 60 per cent of the tannery industry in India. Chennai Refinery Limited has given rise to several petro-based units. Major chemical and fertilizer plants have been established at Cuddalore and Tuticorin. IrrigationImportant irrigation schemes and modernisation of existing Periyar Vaigai System, Palar Basin System and Parambikulam-Aliyar System besides the minor system in Vellar, Pennayar, Araniyar Amaravathi, Chithar basins totaling, an extent of six lakh acres of existing ayacut in Tamil Nadu have been benefited by implementing the ‘System Improvement and Farmers Turnover Projects’ executed with assistance from World Bank. The major irrigation system covering one-third of irrigated extent in Tamil Nadu, namely tank irrigation system has been given due regard for development under WRCP, and 620 tanks maintained by Public Works Department falling under Palar, Vaigai, and Tamaraparani Basins have been taken up for rehabilitation and improvement. The State has become the pioneer State to implement the system of ‘River basin management’ by an individual body consisting of officials and farmers besides various representatives of the basin. To start with, Basin Management Boards have been formed for Palar and Tamaraparani basins. PowerThe total installed capacity for electricity in the State is 8,249 MW. The installed capacity of State Sector is 5,288 MW, and that of Private Sector is 1,058 MW. Apart from this, 1,903 MW is available as share from Central Sector. TransportRoads: The length of roads network in Tamil Nadu is 1,50,095 km, of which surfaced road is 60,901 km. Railways: The total length of railways is 4,181 km, the main junctions being Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli. Aviation: Chennai being the international airport in the southern region is the main centre of airline routes. Besides, there are airports at Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem. Ports: Major ports in the State are Chennai and Tuticorin. There are seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam. FestivalsPongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thanks giving for a bounteous harvest. Pongal festival is followed by the Jallikattu-Bull fight, in some parts of southern Tamil Nadu. Alanganallur in Tamil Nadu is internationally famous for Jallikattu - Bull fight. Chithirai festival, Madurai brings a spectacular re-enactment of the marriage of the Pandiyan princess Meenakshi to Lord Sundareswarar. Adipperukku is a festival celebrated on the 18th day of Tamil month, Adi, on the banks of rivers. It marks the commencement of new farming operations. Dance Festival, Mamallapuram, which is set before an open air stage, created 13 centuries ago the incredible monolithic rock sculptures of the Pallavas, next to the sea in this ancient city of Mamallapuram. Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, and Odissi are some dance forms presented by the very best exponents of the art besides folk dances. At the Natyanjali Dance Festival, the temple city of Chidambaram pays special tribute to Lord Nataraja the ‘Cosmic Dancer’. MahamagamFestival is a holy festival that brings pilgrims to Kumbakonam once in 12 years - the temple city that gets its name from Kumbha - the divine pot. The summer festival is held every year in the ‘Queen of Hill Stations’, the evergreen Ooty, the exquisite Kodaikkanal or the salubrious heights of Yercaud. KanthuriFestival is a truly secular festival, where devotees flock to the shrine of saint Quadirwali. One of the descendants of the Saint is chosen as a Peer or spiritual leader, and is honoured with offerings. On the tenth day of the festival, the Saint’s tomb is anointed with sandalwood, and later the holy sandal paste is distributed to everyone. Wondrous legends surround the church, the most famous being that of the ship wrecked Portuguese sailors, who in the 16th century, vowed to build a great shrine for the Virgin Mary, for saving their lives in a terrible storm. The Velankanni festival attracts thousands, clad in orange robes to the sacred spot where the ship landed. Equally famous are the Virgin Mary's miraculous healing powers, earning for the church the name 'Lourdes of the East'. The Navarathiri Festival, literally means the festival of ‘nine nights’, taking unique and different forms in different states of India, all to propitiate the goddess Sakthi, for power, wealth and knowledge. Rows of glittering earthen lamps outside every home and joyous burst of fire crackers mark Tamil Nadu’s Festival of lights, Karthigai Deepam. In December, Chennai celebrates her priceless heritage of carnatic music and dance at its Music Festival to present a galaxy of star artistes, old and new. Tourist Centres Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvannamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai (monument centres), Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli (water-falls), Ooty (Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills (hill stations), Guindy (Chennai), Mudumalai, Annamalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad (wild life sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Arignar Anna Zoological Park, near Chennai, are some of the places of tourist interest. Tripura
Area : 10,491.69 sq km Population : 3,199,203 Capital : Agartala Principal Languages : Bengali and Kokborak History and Geography Tripura has a long historic past, a unique tribal culture and a fascinating folklore. The history of Tripura can be understood from ‘Rajmala’ chronicles of king Tripura and writings of other Mohammedan historians. There are references of Tripura even in Mahabharata and Puranas. According to ‘Rajmala’, the rulers were known by the surname ‘Fa’ meaning ‘father’. There is a reference to rulers of Bengal helping Tripura kings in the 14th century. Kings of Tripura had to face frequent Mughal invasions with varying successes. They defeated the Mohammedan Sultans of Bengal in several battles. Nineteenth century marked the beginning of the modern era in Tripura, when king Maharaja Birchandra Kishore Manikya Bahadur modelled his administrative set-up on the British India pattern and brought in various reforms. His successors ruled Tripura till 15 October, 1949, when it merged with the Indian Union. Initially, a part 'C' state, it became a centrally administered territory with the reorganisation of states in 1956. In 1972, Tripura attained the status of a full-fledged state. Tripura is strategically situated between the river valleys of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Encircled almost on three sides by Bangladesh, it is linked with Assam and Mizoram in the North-East. Irrigation and Power Geographical area of Tripura is 10,49,169 hectare. It is assessed that about 2,80,000 hectares of land is cultivable. As on 31 March 2005 an area of 82,005 hectares of land has been brought under assured irrigation by providing lift irrigation, deep tube well, diversion, medium irrigation, shallow tube wells and pump sets. This is about 29.29 per cent of the cultivable land in the state. 1269 L.I. Schemes, 160 deep tube wells, 27 diversion schemes have been completed and 3 medium irrigation schemes, namely, (i) Gumti (ii) Khowai and (iii) Manu are providing irrigation water to the part portion of the command areas as canal system has not been completed.The present highest peak demand of power in the State is around 162 MW Power available now from own generating stations is around 70 MW. About 50 MW power is being imported from the State's allocated share from the Central Sector power generating stations in the NE-Region. Thus, the total available power is about 120 MW, leaving a short fall of about 42 MW during peak hours. This deficit is currently being managed by shedding lead in a sequential manner for about 1(one) to 1/1-2 (one and half) hour in the evening throughout the State.The peak demand of the State has been estimated to go up to 253 MW by 2007 by CEA in 16th Power Survey Report. It is estimated that the peak demand during 2012 will be 396 MW considering the demand arising out of Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) and industrialisation in the State.1x21 MW GT Project at Baramura finding under NEC : Sanctioned by EFC & recommended by DONER but yet to be approved by Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India.Another 1x21 MW G.T. set at Rokhia, West Tripura was installed on 31 March 2006.ONGCL Power Project (110 MW): Tripura's share is 100 MW. Likely to be commissioned in 2008-09.TransportRoads: The total length of roads in Tripura is 15,227 km, of which major district roads constitute 454 km and other district roads are 1,538 km. Railways: The total length of railway lines within the state extended up to Manu is 66 km. Manu-Agartala Railway line (Length-88 km) has been declared as National Project and target date has been fixed for completion of the project by March 2007.Preliminary survey for Agartala-Sabroom rail link was done several years back. It is understood that reconnaissance engineering-cum-traffic survey for a new BG line between Agartala and Sabroom was sanctioned in 1998-99. The survey report for this new Railway line (110 km) was finalised and sent to the Railway Board in mid-2000 by NF railway authorities. Therefore, work for updating of this survey report was taken up during 2004-05 and updated survey report with cast. Estimate of Rs. 556.88 crore were sent to the Railway Board by NF railway authorities in early 2005.In order to increase trade and commerce with Bangladesh, railway link between Agartala (a railway junction in Bangladesh) needs to be established. The distance from Agartala is roughly 13 km of which 5.40 km is within India. This link will facilitate establishing a much-needed direct railway link from Tripura to Kolkata in West Bengal for easier movement of passenger and freight.A preliminary survey for construction of new railway line connecting Agartala to Akhaura was sanctioned by Railway Board in February 1999. Survey for Indian portion was completed and Bangladesh Railway authorities were requested by NF railway authorities to provide details of their part. But as no information from bangladesh was available, the Survey report for Indian part of Agartala-Akhaura new railway line (5.4 km) at an estimated cost of Rs. 27.27 crore was sent to the Railway Board by NF railway authorities in mid- 2000. There has been no progress thereafter in this regard.Aviation: The main Airport is at Agartala. There are airports at Kailashahar, Kamalpur and Khowai though they are not functioning at present.The Civil Aviation Ministry has been requested to consider asking Indian Airlines and other private airlines operating in this region to operate hopping flights between Agartala and Silchar in Assam via Kailashahar and Kamalpur airport. The Ministry has now mooted the idea that the State government and NEC may sign a MoU with NEC agreeing to share the expenditure on development of development of these two airports. The State Government has expressed its inability to agree to this proposal.TourismThe important tourist centres are :(a) West-south Tripura Tourism Circuit: (i) Agartala (ii) Kamalsagar (iii) Sepahijala (iv) Neermahal (v) Udaipur (vi) Pilak (vii) Mahamuni(b) West-North Tripura Tourism Circuit: (i) Agartala (ii) Unokuti (iii) Jampui Hill.FestivalsTourism Festival: (i) Orange and tourism Festival-Vangmun (ii) Unokuti Tourism Festival (iii) Neermahal Tourism Festival (iv) Pilak Tourism Festival. Cultural Religious Festival: (i) Makar Sankranti at Thirthamukh and Unokoti (ii) Holi (iii) Ashokashtami at Unokoti, Brahmakunda (Mohanpur) (iv) Rash (v) Bengali New Year (vi) Garia, Dhamail, Biju and Hojgiri Festival, (vii) Boat Race and Manasa Mangal Festival (viii) Ker and Khachi Festival (ix) Durgapuja (x) Diwali (xi) Christmas at Jampuri Hills (xii) Budha Purnima (xiii) Rabindra-Najrul-Sukanta Utsav (xiv) Street Drama Festival (xv) Chongpreng Utsav (xvi) Khumpuli Festival (xvii) Wah Festival (xviii) Folk Cultural Festival (Loko Utsav) (xix) Murasing Festival (xx) Sanghati Festival (xxi) Baishakhi Festival (Sabroom), etc are celebrated. Folk Dance View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
TourismWest-south Tripura Tourism Circuit: (i) Agartala (ii) Kamalsagar (iii) Sepahijala (iv) Neermahal (v) Udaipur (vi) Pilak (vii) Mahamuni West-North Tripura Tourism Circuit: (i) Agartala (ii) Dumboor Lake (iii) Unokuti (iv) Jampuri Hill Uttarakhand Area : 53,484 sq km Population : 8,489,349 Capital : Dehradun Principal Languages : Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni History and Geography Uttarakhand finds mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand, Manaskhand and Himavant. The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, the Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, the Chandras and Pawaras and the British have ruled it in turns. It is often called the Land of the Gods (Dev Bhoomi), because of its various holy places and abundant shrines. The hilly regions of Uttarakhand offer unspoilt landscapes to the tourist-pilgrim. The present State of Uttarakhand was earlier a part of the United Province of Agra and Awadh, which came into existence in 1902. In 1935, the name of the State was shortened to the United Province. In January 1950, the United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand remained a part of Uttar Pradesh before it came into being on 9 November, 2000, the 27th State of India. Located in the foothills of the Himalayas, the State has international boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. On its north-west lies Himachal Pradesh, while on the south is Uttar Pradesh. AgricultureAbout 90 per cent of the population of Uttarakhand depends on agriculture. The total cultivated area in the State is 7,84,117 hectares. Industry and Minerals The State is rich in mineral deposits like limestone, marble, rock phosphate, dolomite, magnesite, copper greyphyte, gypsum, etc. The number of smallscale industries is 25,294 providing employment to 63,599 persons. As many as 1802 heavy and medium industries with an investment of Rs 20,000 crore employ 5 lakh persons. Most of the industries are forest-based. There is a totalof 54,047 handicraft units in the state.Irrigation and Energy Agricultural land under irrigation is 5,91,418 hectares. The State has excellent potential for hydropower generation. There are a number of hydro-electric projects on the rivers Yamuna, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Saryu Gauri, Kosi and Kali generating electricity. Out of 15,667 villages, 14,447 villages have been electrified.TransportRoads: The total length of metalled roads in Uttarakhand is 19,543 km. The length of PWD roads is 17,545 km, while the length of roads built by local bodies is 1,998 km. Railways: The main railway stations are Dehradun, Hardwar, Roorkee, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Udhamsingh Nagar, Haldwani, Ramnagar and Kathgodam. Aviation: There are air strips at Jolly Grant (Dehradun), and Pantnagar (Udham Singh Nagar). Air strips at Naini-Seni (Pithoragarh), Gauchar (Chamoli) and Chinyalisaur (Uttarkashi) are under construction. From this year Pawan Hans Ltd., has started helicopter service from Rudraprayag to Kedarnath for pilgrims. FestivalsThe world-famous Kumbh Mela/Ardh Kumbh Mela is held in Hardwar at an interval of every twelfth/sixth year. Other prominent fairs/festivals are: Devidhura Mela (Champawat), Purnagiri Mela (Champawat), Nanda Devi Mela (Almora), Gauchar Mela (Chamoli), Baisakhi (Uttarkashi), Magha Mela (Uttarkashi), Uttaraini Mela (Bageshwar), Vishu Mela (Jaunsar Vavar), Peerane-Kaliyar (Roorkee), and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra, held every twelfth year. Tourist Centres Prominent places of pilgrimage/tourist interests are Gangotri, Yamunotri, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Hardwar, Rishikesh, Hemkund Sahib, Nanakmatta, etc. Kailash Mansarovar Yatra can be performed through Kumaon region. The world-famous Valley of Flowers, Pindari Glacier, Roop Kund, Dayara Bugyal, Auli, and hill stations like Mussoorie, Dehradun, Chakrata, Nainital, Ranikhet, Bageshwar, Bhimtal, Kausani are the important places of tourist interest. Uttar Pradesh
Area : 2,40,928 sq km Population : 166,052,859 Capital : Lucknow Principal Languages : Hindi and Urdu History and Geography The history of the State of Uttar Pradesh is very ancient and interesting. It is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bharadwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkya, Vasishta, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh. In the sixth century BC, Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new religions - Jainism and Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order, and it was in Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, where Buddha breathed his last. Several centres in Uttar Pradesh like Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi and Mathura became reputed centres of learning. In the medieval period, Uttar Pradesh passed under Muslim rule and led the way to new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures. Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas and many other intellectuals contributed to the growth of Hindi and other languages. Uttar Pradesh preserved its intellectual excellency even under the British administration. The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province, and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United Provinces in 1935. In January 1950, the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh. The State is bounded by Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh in the north, Haryana in the west, Madhya Pradesh in the south, and Bihar in the east. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into two distinct regions, (i) Southern hills and (ii) Gangetic plain. AgricultureAgriculture is the main occupation of 66 per cent of the population of the state. The net cultivated area in the state is 167.50 lakh hectares. In the year 2003-04 the state produced 255.67 lakh metric tonnes of wheat, 130.22 lakh metric tonnes of rice, 23.80 lakh metric tonnes of pulses and 6.44 lakh metric tonnes of oilseeds and 1127.54 lakh tonnes sugar cane. Total foodgrains productionduring 2003-2004 was 442.58 lakh metric tonnes.Industry and Minerals During the year 2004-2005 there were 521835 small-scale industrial units involving a total investment of Rs. 5131 crore and employment opportunities for 2001000 persons. About 45.51 lakh tonnes of sugar was produced in the state during the year 2003-2004. There were 68 textile units. Thirty-two automobile units with an investment of Rs. 5,740 crore provided jobs to 20280 persons.It is planned to develop 102 sectors of New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA) by th year 2011. The Authority includes industrial sectors,housing sectors,group housing sectors, residential buildings, commercial assets and institutional sectors. Steps have been taken to develop other industrial areas in the state on the pattern of Noida and Greater Noida. A Software Technology Park has been set up in Kanpur while five more Software Parks are proposed to be set up.Under the public sector, mining of limestone, magnesite, phosphate, dolomite and silicon-sand is carried out. The bulkminor and some of the major minerals like limestone, silica-sand, pyrophyllite and diaspore is mostly with the private sector. Important based industries include large cement plants in Sonebhadra.Irrigation and PowerUP Power Corporation, UP State Power Generation and UP Hydel Power Corporation had been formed by reorganising UP State Electricity Board on 14 January 2000.During 2004-05 an expenditure of Rs 98715 crore was made to raise the irrigation potential to a level of 319.17 lakh hectares. At the time of inception the total installed capacity of UPSEB, including thermal and hydro, was 2,635 MW which has now been raised to 4621 MW.TransportRoads : The total road length in the State is 1,04,137 km. This includes 3,912 km of national highways, 9,098 km of state highways, 87,248 km of important district roads, 91,127 km of other district roads, and 72,931 km of rural roads.Railways: Lucknow is the main junction of the northern network. Other important railway junctions are Agra, Kanpur, Allahabad, Mughalsarai, Jhansi, Moradabad, Varanasi, Tundla, Gorakhpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Bareilly and Sitapur. Aviation: There are airports at Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi, Bareilly, Hindon (Ghaziabad), Gorakhpur, Sarsawa (Saharanpur), and Fursatganj (Rae-Bareli). FestivalsThe biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumbha Mela is held at Allahabad every twelfth year and Ardh kumbh Mela every sixth year. Magh Mela is also held at Allahabad in January when the people come in large number to have a dip in the holy Sangam. Among other fairs is the fortnight long Jhoola fair of Mathura, Vrindavan and Ayodhya, when dols are placed in gold and silver jhoolas or cradles. A dip in the Ganga on Kartik Poornamasi is supposed to be the holiest and there are big congregations at arhmukteshwar,Soran, Rajghat, kakora, Bithur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi and Ayodhya. A famous cattle fair is held at Bateswar in Agra district. Dewa in Barabanki district has became famous because of the Muslim saint Waris Ali Shah. Besides, important festivals of the Hindus, Muslims, etc., are widely celebrated in the state.Kumbh Mela, Allahabad View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
Tourist Centres Uttar Pradesh has varied attractions for all kinds of tourists. Besides ancient places of pilgrimage like Varanasi, Vindhyachal, Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Naimisharanya, Mathura, Vrindavan, Dewa Sharief, Dargah of Sheikh Saleem Chishti in Fatehpur Sikri, Sarnath, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampil, Piprahwa and Kaushambi, places like Agra, Ayodhya, Sarnath, Varanasi, Lucknow, Jhansi, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kannauj, Mahoba, Devgarh, Bithur, and Vindhyachal have rich treasures of Hindu and Islamic architecture and culture.
West Bengal
Area : 88,752 sq km Population : 80,176,197 Capital : Kolkata Principal Languages : Bengali History and Geography The State of Bengal finds a coveted place, even in pre-historic times. At the time of Alexander's invasion, a powerful kingdom called Gangaridai ruled over Bengal. Ascendancy of the Guptas and the Mauryas had somewhat little effect on Bengal. Later, Sasanka became King of Bengal, and is said to have played an important role in north-eastern India in the early half of the seventh century. He was succeeded by Gopala, who founded the Pala dynasty, which ruled for centuries and had created a huge empire. The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty, which was ended by Muslim rulers from Delhi. Bengal was ruled by various Muslim rulers and governors till the Mughal period in sixteenth century. After the Mughals, history of modern Bengal began with the advent of European and English trading companies. Battle of Plassey in 1757 changed the course of history, when the English first gained a strong foothold in Bengal and India. In 1905, it was partitioned to achieve some political returns but people’s growing movement under the of Congress led to the reunion in 1911. This triggered off hectic movement for freedom, which culminated with Independence in 1947, and the partition thereafter. After 1947, the merger of native settlement began, which ended with its final reorganisation in 1956 (as per Recommendations of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956), when some Bengali speaking areas of a neighbouring state were transferred to West Bengal. The land frontier of the State touches Bangladesh in the east, and is separated from Nepal in the west. Bhutan lies in the north-east, while Sikkim is on the north. On the west are the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, while in the south lies Orissa, and the Bay of Bengal, washing its southern frontiers. AgricultureAgriculture plays a pivotal role in the State’s economy and nearly three out of every four persons are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. The total food production in the State in 2004-05, was 16107.2 thousand tonnes. During 2004-05, the production of rice was 14884.9 thousand tonnes, of wheat 841.5 thousand tonnes and of pulses 167.3 thousand tonnes respectively. The production of oilseeds during the same period was 556.8 thousand tonnes and of potato 7106.6 thousand tonnes. The production of jute was 7853.2 thousand bales in 2004-05.IndustryIn 2005 the number of approved industrial proposals in the State was provisionally estimated to be 386 with a total investment of Rs 17968.41 crore. In this period from 1991 to 2004, approved industrial investment proposals received by the State were 4029 involving a total investment of Rs. 75720.59 crore.In the period from 1991 to 2004, 991 projects with a total investment of Rs. 26680.14 crore were implemented. In 2005, according to the available information, 161 projects with a total investment of Rs. 1914.72 crore were implemented in the State. On 31 December 2005, 65 major projects (projects with investment over Rs. 25 crore) with a total investment of Rs. 8987 crore under implementation in West Bengal.The largest number of major projects under construction is located in Burdwan followed by Purba Medinipur. In the industrially backward district of Bankura, 7 major industrial projects are coming up. Six of these are in the iron and steel industry and the other is a cement unit. In Purulia, another industrially backward district, 5 major projects are under construction. The four projects are in the iron and steel industry and the other is a cement unit.While industrial investment has been increasing specially from the beginning of this decade, the employment potential of most units is much lower than the old labour intensive units in existence in the State. In these circumstances the need is to increase manifold industrial investment in the State. The State Government has been able to overcome the earlier misgivings of investors in investing in a State under a pro-labour government.In conjunction with practical measures to sustain investors' confidence, the State government has set in place a number of policy initiatives. The State government has promulgated in quick succession a Bio-technology Policy, Mines and Mineral Policy, Information Technology Policy and Policy for IT enabled services.The State Government has also been the first State Government in India to formulate an act on Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The first sector-specific SEZ in India, Manikanchan Gem and Jewelry Park, has already becomeThe signing of South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) agreement on 18 January 2006 would provide opportunities as well as challenges to West Bengal, one of the border states in India. The objective of SAFTA is to reduce existing tariffs to less than five per cent within a time frame so as to increase trade among SAARC countries. operational in the State.The State is perhaps one of the few states in India with surplus power. The State Government has taken up a programme to maintain this surplus situation in the coming years. In addition to increasing significantly the installed power generation capacity, the State government is also implementing a number of schemes for improving and extending the transmission and distribution network.The State Government has also been improving the physical and social infrastructure in the state especially in urban areas. It has also been trying to improve the road connectivity in the State by constructing new roads or improving and strengthening the existing road network. The 1600 crore Kolkata megacity Programme is being implemented by the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA). Under the programme a total of 130 schemes weight a total cost of Rs. 1267.33 crore in various sectors like water supply, traffic and transportation, sewerage and drainage, solid waste management, housing and area development, commercial complex, busted improvement, environment improvement were taken up. The Kolkata Improvement Trust (KIT) also implements schemes under Kolkata Megacity Programme (KMP). The Howrah Improvement Trust (HIT) is also implementing schemes under KMP. Under KMP 1,768 km of eastern drainage channel at Salt Lake has been re-excavated. The most important infrastructural project being implemented in the State is the Rajarhat New Town Project covering an area of 3075 hectares in the north eastern fringe of Kolkata. Land acquisition and development have been completed in Action Area-I covering 660 hectares. In action Area II covering an area of 1050 hectares, land filling is in progress.The Development Authorities formed to develop different urban areas in the State are also implementing large number of schemes. The West Bengal Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (WBIIDC) is the nodal state level agency for developing infrastructure specifically for the industrial sector, WBIIDC has so far developed 12 growth centres (industrial estates)located at Kalyani (Phase-I, II & III), Falta, Uluberia, Bishnupur, Raninagar, Cooch Behar, Malda, Dabgram, Haldia and Kharagpur. The West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC), the prime agency in the state for promoting industries has in recent years been increasingly involved in developing infrastructure for the industry sector. With investment flow no longer a problem, WBIDC's promotional activities could best be supplemented by providing state of the art industry specific 'parks' to investors.The IT Department of the State Government is the prime agency for promoting IT industry in the state. Within a short time the IT industry has achieved significant growth. At present total export earning of IT companies located in Software Technology Park (STP) is Rs. 2000 crore. Presently 180 IT and 55 ITes companies are operating in Kolkata providing employment to 35000 professionals. The Food Processing Industries and Horticulture Department of the State Government Promotes food processing industries in the State. The department has been trying to motivate small entrepreneurs to invest in the food processing industry. To reiterate it sets up food parks, perishable goods cargo complexes, quality control laboratories, etc.Irrigation and Power Irrigation potential created in the State through major and medium irrigation projects in 2004-05 was provisionally estimated at 1554.71 thousand hectares. At present only two major irrigation projects. Teesta Barriage Projects (TBP) and Sabarnarekha Barrage Project (SBP) are being implemented in the State. In both these projects the State is facing a number of constraints. As a result of these constraints only 22,245 thousand hectares of irrigation potential could be created in the first three years of the 10th plan in 2002-03 to 2004-05. It is anticipated that 10,000 hectares in 2005-06 and in 2006-07 15,000 hectares of irrigation potential will be created. So that total irrigation potential created during the 10th Plan would be nearly 37 thousand hectares. Currently ninemedium irrigation schemes in the district of Puralia are continuing. A total of 12.41 thousand hectares of irrigation potential have been created through medium irrigation schemes in the first three years of the 10th plan.Power in West Bengal is currently generated by the West Bengal Power Development Corporation Limited, West Bengal State Electricity Board, Calcutta Electricity Supply Corporation, Durgapur Project Limited, Disergarh Power Supply Corporation etc. Total generation of power produced by the State agencies was 17115 MU in 2005-06 (up to April to November 2005). The total number of moujas electrified during 2005-06 (up to November 2005) is 32552 and the total number of pump sets energised is 1,13,759.TransportRoads: The length of roads under state highways is 3,354 km, under PWD 12,288 km, and that of the district roads is 41,278 km respectively. Railways: Howrah, Asansol, Sealdah, Bandel, Bardhaman, Kharagpur and New Jalpaiguri are the main junctions in West Bengal. FestivalsDurga Puja is the most important festival along with Kali Puja or Diwali besides Vasant Panchami, Lakshmi Puja, Holi, Sivaratri, Janmasthami, Id-ul-Fitr, etc. Durga Puja, West Bengal View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
Tourist Centres Important tourist centres are, among others Kolkata, Digha (Midnapore), Bakkhali Sea Resort, Sagar Island and Sundarbans (South 24-Parganas), Bandel, Tarakeswar, Kamarpukur (Hooghly), Gadiara (Howrah), Shantiniketan and Bakreshwar (Birbhum), Durgapur (Burdwan), Mukutmanipur and Vishnupur (Bankura), Ayodhya Hills (Purulia), Murshidabad, Gour and Pandua (Malda), Darjeeling, Mirik, Kalimpong, Sandakfu and Falut and Kurseong (Darjeeling), Jaldapara and Dooars (Jalpaiguri).
Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu

Andaman & Nicobar Islands Area : 8,249 sq km Population : 356,152 Capital : Port Blair Principal Languages : Hindi, Nicobarese, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a Union Territory, are situated between 6° and 14° North Latitude and 92° and 94° East Longitude. The group of 572 islands/ Islets lies in the Bay of Bengal, 193 km from Cape Negaris in Burma (Myanmar), 1,255 km from Kolkata and 1,190 km from Chennai. Two principal groups of islets are Ritchie's Archipelago and Labyrinth Islands. The Nicobar Islands are situated to the south of Andamans, 121 km from Little Andaman Island. There are 38 inhabited islands, including 25 in the Andaman district and 13 in the Nicobar district. The original inhabitants of the islands lived in the forests on hunting and fishing. There are four Negrito tribes, viz., the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa and Sentinalese in the Andaman group of islands, and two Mongoloid tribes, viz., Nicobarese and Shompens in the Nicobar group of islands. Sentinalese are still hostile, keeping a separate entity, and have not yet learnt the concept of covering their bodies. The modern history of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands begins with the establishment of a settlement by East India Company in 1789. However, in 1796 this settlement was abandoned. Following the first war of Indian Independence in 1857, the British India Government founded the penal settlement in these islands in 1858, primarily known as Kalapani, for the deportation of freedom fighters from the mainland India, which continued till the second World War during the Second World War, the Japanese forces occupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1942. Further, following the surrender of the Japanese forces in the Second World War, the British India Government reoccupied these islands in 1945 and continued their administration till the Independence of the country in 1947. AGRICULTURE A total of 51,694.35 hect. of area 8068.71 hect. under agriculture and plantation in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was damaged by Tsunami / Earthquake. Out of that paddy and other field crops in 2177.70 hect. and 5891.01 hect. under plantation crops. Area under permanent submergence is 4206.64 hect. with paddy and other field crops.Paddy the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of Islands, whereas Coconut and Areca nut are the cash crops of Nicobar group of Islands. Field crops, namely, pulses, oilseeds and vegetable grown followed by paddy during Rabi season. Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by the farmers. Spices, viz. pepper, clove, nutmeg and cinnamon are grown under multitier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these Islands.FORESTS The recorded forest area is 7,171 sq km of the total geographical area of the islands. Many types of forests are found in the islands, such as tropical wet evergreen, tropical semi evergreen, moist deciduous, littoral, mangrove and swamp forests. A large variety of timbers are found in the Andaman group of islands. The most valuable timbers are padauk and gurjan. These species are not found in Nicobar. WILDLIFEThere are 96 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 9 National Parks and 1 Biosphere Reserve in these Islands. Mammals - Out of 55 terrestrial and 7 Marine mammal species reported so far, 32 species are endemic. Birds - As many as 246 species and sub species of birds are reported to inhabit these Islands, and of these, 99 species and sub species are endemic. Reptiles - There are 76 terrestrial reptiles of these 24 species are endemic. Marine Life - Islands harbour more than 1,200 species of fish, 350 species of echinoderms, 1,000 species of molluscs and many more lower forms of life. Among vertebrates dugongs, dolphins, whales, salt water crocodiles, sea turtles, sea snakes, etc., are common. Coral and Coral reefs – So far, 179 species of corals belonging to 61 genera have been reported. Reefs are mostly fringing type on eastern coast and barrier type on the western coast. INDUSTRY There are 1763 registered Small scale village and Handicrafts Units as on 31 March 2006. Two units are 100 per cent export oriented units in the line of Fish/Prawn processing activity. Apart from this, there are shells and wood based handicraft units. SSI units are engaged in the production of paints and varnishes, mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, steel furniture and fixtures, readymade garments, steel gate grills and structures. Small-scale handicraft units are also engaged in shell crafts, bakery products, rice milling,furniture making, etc. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation in the Public sector has spread its wings in the field of Tourism, Fisheries, Industries and Industrial financing and functions as authorized agents for Alliance Air/Jet Airways/Air Deccan.TRANSPORT The Motor Transport Department of A & N Administration has extended its service to 10 (ten) Islands besides Port Blair in this Union Territory. The span of services extended from Diglipur in the North to Campbell Bay in the South. The State Transport Service is operating around 143 Buses on 75 routes. The Administration has given route permits to private bus operators to ensureproper connectivity of places. The Andaman Trunk Road Services connects Port Blair with Rangat, Mayabunder and Diglipur.The massive earth quake followed by tsunami on 26 December 2004 completely destroyed the infrastructure of the State Transport Service in Little Andaman, Car Nicobar, Katchal and Campbell Bay. However the service was restored within a period of two months in all the islands and the public transport service is almost normal in all the tsunami affected islands of the Union Territory. To restore public transport service in the southern group of islands immediately after tsunami buses from Port Blair were taken out oftheir existing routes and sent to the southern group of islands where the entire transport service was completely dislocated.The infrastructure at Hut Bay, Katchal and Campbell Bay which suffered severe damages are being rebuilt/repaired in order to facilitate better transport service to the residents of the Southern group of islands.TOURISM Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been recognised as an eco-friendly tourist’s destination. As a tourist paradise, these islands have something very special to offer like Cellular Jail, Ross Island and Havelock Island.The Andaman tropical evergreen rain forests, beautiful silver sandy beaches, serpentine mangrove-lines creeks, marine life abounding rare species of plants, animals, corals, etc., provide a memorable experience to the tourists. There is tremendous scope for enjoying nature in the beach resorts, water sports and adventure water sports, adventure tourism like trekking, Island camping, Nature trail, Scuba Diving, etc.Cellular Jail, Andaman View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
The Andaman tropical evergreen rain forests, beautiful silver sandy beaches, serpentine mangrove-lines creeks, marine life abounding rare species of plants, animals, corals, etc., provide a memorable experience to the tourists. There is tremendous scope for enjoying nature in the beach resorts, water sports and adventure water sports, adventure tourism like trekking, Island camping, Nature trail, Scuba Diving, etc. Tourism Department runs guest houses in various parts of the Islands for comfortable accommodation to tourists visiting these Islands. The important places of tourist interest are Anthropological Museum, Marine Museum, Water Sports Complex, Gandhi Park, North Bay, Viper Island, Ross Island, Chidiyatapu, (Bird watching), Red Skin Island, Corbyn's cove Beach, Islands like Neil Island, Havelock Island, Cinque, Little Andaman, Diglipur (Ross & Smith), etc. Tented accommodation is available at Radha Nagar Beach from December to May. The best season to visit these Islands is from October to May. Chandigarh Area : 114 sq km Population : 900,635 Capital : Chandigarh Principal Languages : Hindi, Punjabi, English HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Chandigarh is a fully grown town of most modern architectural splendour. The city nestles in a picturesque setting in the foothills of Shivalik hills and enjoys the popular epithet the "City Beautiful". Representative of modern Architecture & Town Planning, the city is a creation of the French Architect, Le Corbusier, Chandigarh and the area surrounding it were constituted as aUnion Territory on 1 November 1966. It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana States. It is bounded on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South by Haryana.Assembly Building designed by the French architect, Le Corbusier, Chandigarh View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
ADMINISTRATIONChandigarh Administration is moving on four broad fronts. First, it is our aim to provide, with the help of information technology, an accessible and transparent administration. We were among the earliest to implement the provisions of the Right to Information Act. A number of services, for which citizens earlier had to go to government offices, are now available on computer and mobile phones. All rules are being reviewed to see what simplification can be carried out to make them user-friendly. The purpose is to minimise theexercise of discretion, and minimise the leg work of the citizen in dealing with the Administration.Secondly, the Administration is working towards a higher rate of economic growth by encouraging economic activities which provide greater value addition, such as knowledge based industries, high-end commercial activity, etc., Chandigarh already has the highest per capita income in the country.Thirdly, the Administration is seeking to provide infrastructural services such as electricity supply, water supply, health and educational services and public transport which should compare with those in advanced countries. It will take time, but we believe that our ambitions can be achieved in the medium term.Fourthly, the Administration is all too conscious of the fact that the benefits of development do not reach everyone equally. Hence there is a special emphasis on reaching out to those whom development has by-passed.AGRICULTURE The Union Territory Chandigarh has limited area under Agriculture. The agricultural land is being gradually acquired for the expansion of Chandigarh City, and cultivated area has shrunk from 5,441 hectares in 1966 to 1,400 hectares in 2002-03. The main sources of irrigation are deep-bore tube-wells installed by the Administration and shallow tube-wells installed by individual farmers. The main crop of foodgrain is wheat and it is sown nearly in 700 hectares of land. The Department is making efforts to promote techniques of harvesting by following measures: (i) Extension and Farmers Study/Training Tour, (ii) Development of Kitchen Garden, (iii) Soil and Water Conservation. INDUSTRY There are 15 large and medium industries, and about 3,140 small-scale industrial units in the State, offering employment to about 30,000 persons and giving an annual output of approximately Rs 600 crore. These units are mainly ancillary units engaged in the manufacturing of industrial fasteners, steel and wooden furniture, machine tools, soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals, electrical/electronic items, sanitary fittings, sports goods, plastic goods, knitting needles, etc. There are about 20 major exporting units in Chandigarh, which export goods to the tune of Rs 60 crore (approximately) annually. Although in national terms, the quantity of exports may appear to be rather small, the Administration's efforts now are to promote only hi-tech electronic and information technology, non-polluting industry besides the export oriented industry for future expansion. POWER Chandigarh gets power from neighbouring states and Central generation projects to meet its power requirement. It has 3.5 per cent share of total power generation of Bhakra complex. Further, the firm allocation is 82.9 mw , out of thermal, nuclear and gas based Central generation projects. The shortfall is being met through ad hoc allocation from BBMB besides Central projects. All the villages around the city stand electrified and have been extended the facility of public lighting. About 2,000 number of energy efficient lamps have been installed in various important buildings. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Chandigarh has made strides in the field of Information Technology which today is synonymous with development and progress. 25 September 2005 will be remembered as a red letter day in the history of Chandigarh. On that day the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, inaugurated the Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park. This has added a fresh dimension to the economy of the city. The creation of a knowledge-based industry is an impetus to Chandigarh being seen as an investment destination for technology companies. This in turn will improve not only the quantity but also the quality of employment. The Administration is also considering the development of Chandigarh as a financial services hub. Projects like the Chandigarh Technology Park, Education City and Film City will further improve the level of economic activity. Chandigarh is becoming one of the preferred destinations for technology companies since it affords an excellent quality of life and a competent base of human resource.In the second phase of the IT Park, Wipro has been made an anchor company and Bharti Teleservices has also been allotted land to set up its software development centre-cum-campus. The 250 acre phase-II of the CTP will comprise of 115 acres for Technology Park and 135 acres for integrated support facilities. An Entrepreneur Development Centre (EDC) is also being established at the CTP. It would be available to IT/ITES/BPO companies for incubation and for setting up of plug and play facilities. It will have a research laboratory which will provide modern facilities to companies to work in.WATER TREATMENT AND IRRIGATIONThe Chandigarh Administration has also initiated action on the various projects to meet the objectives of Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission so as to have planned development of urban areas with focus on efficiency in urban services delivery system. The Municipal Corporation has already sent a project on Tertiary Water Treatment, seeking an assistance of Rs.35 crore to the Union Government. The Chandigarh Administration has made a provision of Rs.94.22 crore of tax revenue for the Municipal Corporation. In addition to this, Rs.7.03 crore were also allotted for payment of street light bills. The Administration has also been giving additional grant to the Municipal Corporation for creation of civic amenities under various projects. Recently Rs. 50 lakh were given to the Municipal Corporation for upgradation of facilities in Sector 17.Chandigarh Administration has always endeavoured to improve the infrastructural facilities of the city. The Administration is giving top priority to the conservation of water. The Administration has been working in close coordination with the Municipal Corporation to provide various civic amenities and services. The augmentation work of water supply scheme, Phase-IV has been completed at the cost of Rs.4722 lakh, 25 new deep tube wells have been installed at various parts of the city at the cost of Rs.300 lakh, and 12 newirrigation tube wells have been installed at the cost of Rs.100 lakh for supply of water for irrigation. A 5 MGD Sewerage Treatment Plant has been constructed at the cost of Rs.505 lakh in village Raipur Kalan for treating sewage affluent of Manimajra. The sewerage and storm water drainage system of the city has further been augmented and strengthened at the cost of Rs.235 lakh.There is a proposal to upgrade the Sewerage Treatment Plant at Diggian to 45MGD at an estimated cost of Rs.3200 lakh. The Tertiary Water Distribution Network will be further augmented at the cost of Rs.2200 lakh. Construction of a 2MGD Sewerage Treatment Plan at Maloya at the cost of Rs.300 lakh is also in pipeline. For further augmenting the water supply, 19 new tube wells will also be installed at a cost of Rs. 300 lakh.ENVIRONMENTFor healthy living, the sustainability of environment and conducive atmosphere is important. In this regard, the Municipal Corporation has developed Green Belts in Sec 38C&D and 24A, B, C&D. Shivalik Garden in Manimajra (Pocket No.7) is being developed at a cost of Rs.200 lakh. Around 5000 trees and shrubs have been planted during the last six months. Community Centers are being constructed at Modern Housing Complex, Manimajra, Sec.28B and Sec.30B at the cost of Rs.50 lakh. For the convenience of commuters, the Corporation has constructed 48 state of the art bus queue shelters.POWERChandigarh has one of the better power supply and electricity distribution systems in the country. We have undertaken a project to provide electricity with a reliability of 99.99 per cent within two years. Keeping in view the need for a quick and efficient public transportation system for Chandigarh, a new Grid Transport System has been introduced. Expressions of interest have been invited for a rail based mass rapid transit system.EDUCATION AND HEALTHIt is one of the priorities to give the social sector especially education and health a definite and desired thrust. Recently, the administration has launched an ambitious Nutrition Programme which aims at maintaining the health and well being of school children. Under the programme, healthy cooked meal such as chapattis, vegetables and dal are being given to the students free of cost especially in colonies, villages, rehabilitation colonies and non-model schools whose pupils are from low income families. In the second phase, other schools will also be supplied same cooked food. Simultaneously teams of doctors would regularly visit schools for repeated monitoring to provide nutrition supplements in tablet form to nutritionally deficient children at least for six months. All anemic and worm affected children examined by the School Health Teams would be provided treatment for three months. For worminfestation, the first dose will be given on the spot while the teachers can be assigned the tasks of administering the second dose on the next due date. Children needing further medical treatment, dental treatment and eye check ups would be referred to the appropriate Hospital for further treatment. The parents of the schools going children in the target areas including rehabilitation and labour colonies would be sensitized repeatedly about nutritional requirements, deficiencies and diseases.The Chandigarh Administration has taken the lead in providing free and compulsory education to all children of the age group 6-14 years as enshrined in our constitution. The fee upto class VIII chargeable from students has also been abolished in all government schools. Not only this, the system of collection of funds from the students in the government schools has also been abolished from December 2005 and therequirement of the government schools will be met from the budget of the Administration. It has also been decided that all students in non-model schools upto class VIII will be provided free books and all children studying in non-model schools upto class VIII will be provided free school uniforms from the forthcoming session.In its endeavour to provide accessible, affordable and reliable health care to the citizens of Chandigarh, the Administration has taken several steps to improve, upgrade and modernise the existing health facilities and infrastructure. Several state of the art facilities have been started at the Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32 and the General Hospital, Sector 16 to provide better patient care. The existing system of the GMCH is being networked and the process to start Endoscopic Surgery in the Department of Gynaecology has also been started. Computerised Radiography System and Digital Radiotherapy will be installed in the Department of Radio-diagnosis of the GMCH. Seven well-equipped operation theatres along with Post Anesthesia Care Unit and Post Operative Ward will be commissioned in the GMCH. Toxicology Laboratory will be established to facilitate patient care with regard to analysis of chemical and poison at the GMCH. Foundation stone of the Regional Institute for Mentally Handicapped at Sector 31-C has been laid.The Emergency Block of the General Hospital, Sector16 will be renovated and a 6-storeyed OPD Block has been planned in the General Hospital. Help Desk at the General Hospital, Sector 16, has been established for convenience of patients and provision for blue coloured cards for according preference to senior citizens in outdoor clinics has been made. Uniformity is being made atprimary level by outsourcing laboratory investigations at the rates equivalent to that of user charges fixed by the Administration. The National Board of Examination, the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have accredited the General Hospital 16 to award Post Graduate Diploma in Gynecology and Pediatrics. There is a proposal to upgrade the School of Nursing into College of Nursing. The patients below poverty line and patients under financial distress are provided free OPD/Indoor treatment. The Chandigarh Administration has set up a Drop-in-Centre for HIV patients to improve their quality of life and a new Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre has also been established at Community Health Centre, Manimajra.COMMERCE AND TRADEWith an aim to create an entrepreneur friendly environment all the major decisions are taken in consultation with the user groups. Public opinion on the Excise Policy 2006-07 has been sought by the Chandigarh Administration to make it more user friendly before its final implementation. The draft Excise Policy has been framed in consonance with the Model Excise Policy/Taxation/Act Rules for alcoholic beverages circulated by the Union Ministry of Food Processing Industries. Simultaneously, it will also check the evasion of the excise duty and other taxes and substantially enhance the revenue of the Administration.To boost commercial activities in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, the Administration has recently announced the liberalization of conversion from one trade to another. Under the policy, free conversion of trade in respect of the ground floors of commercial establishments has been allowed. Allottees of commercial sites and premises can pursue most trades without applying for conversion and without paying for it on the ground floor.WELFAREA society is judged by the way it treats its downtrodden, poor, destitute, senior citizens and widows. In the field of social welfare, the Administration has taken several initiatives. An inclusive Vocational Training-cum-Production Marketing Centre is coming up in Sector 46, which would be a hub of training, trades, self-employment activities, early intervention and prevention of childhood disabilities and to make the children self supported persons. The Centre will also cater to the needs of deserving persons of the neighbouring states. A Vocational Training Programme for Persons with Disabilities is proposed to be funded under the Govt. of India’s scheme where vocational training and sheltered workshops can be established. For the convenience of the pensioners, the Administration has started disbursing Old Age Pension, Widow Pension and Pension to Disabled Person through Sampark Centres established in Sectors 10,15,18,23,43,47, Manimajra and Industrial Area Phase- I. Chandigarh Administration has set up a Maintenance Cell at the Chandigarh College of Engineering and Technology to provide maintenance services to the residents of the city in technical fields. It will also impart technical training in various fields to the people living below poverty line to make them self dependent wage earners.The Administration has also launched a project under which local artisans will be provided a place to showcase their artifacts and a platform to exhibit and sell their products. A directory of artisans will be prepared which will be kept at the Panchayat Bhawan so that the artisans can be contacted whenever required. The artisans will also be encouraged to form cooperative societies for which all help will be extended to them by the Registrar Cooperative Societies so as to enable them to exhibit and sell their products in a profitable way. A Child Art Gallery in Govt. Museum and Art Gallery will be established.HOUSING AND INFRASTRUCTUREChandigarh Administration has been making sincere efforts to meet the housing demand of the residents. Housing scheme for 96 one bedroom and 96 two bedroom flats in Sector 49 has recently been launched. Similarly, another housing scheme for 160 one bed room and 112 two bed room flats in Sector 49 is likely to be launched shortly. For economically weaker sections, 288 flats inSector 38(West) and 400 flats in Sector 49 will be launched under another housing scheme. About 1600 multi-storeyed flats will be constructed in Sector 63 for which consultants are being engaged. Chandigarh Administration has earmarked 135 acres of land for residential facility in the CTP where about 2000 flats are expected to be constructed. About 90 acres of land has also been allotted to the CHB in Sectors 53, 54 and 55 for housing scheme. Chandigarh Administration is also in the process of earmarking 20 acres of land in Sector 52 for construction of houses of different categories for U.T. employees. Chandigarh Housing Board is being computerized to provide online data to public to check their accounts and pay dues online. Software for providing online information to the allottees has been prepared and property records are being computerised.Chandigarh Police has strived to provide a people friendly, transparent and responsive policing to the residents of the city with focus on professionalism and basic policing. The Chandigarh Police has recently launched an SMS information facility. The SMS information facility would enable any person to know status of public complaints submitted at the public window system and the status of their passport applications. The Common Integrated Police Application is also being introduced in all the police stations of the UnionTerritory of Chandigarh.Chandigarh boasts of an excellent sports infrastructure in the country. Its modern sports infrastructure has further been strengthened. Flood lights with latest technology at a cost of Rs.1.67 crore have been commissioned at Hockey Stadium, Sector 42. The swimming pool of the Lake Club is being renovated and several world class facilities are being added to the Cricket stadium,Sector 16 to bring it at par with an international cricket ground. Flood lights will also be installed. All weather swimming pool at Sports Complex, Sector 42, will be constructedTRANSPORTChandigarh Transport Undertaking has the privilege to operate public transport plied on sub-urban routes, city routes and on inter-state routes. The length of national highways is 15.275 km. Chandigarh is well connected by all, road and air as well. TOURIST CENTRESImportant tourist centres are Rock Garden, Rose Garden, Sukhna Lake, Museum and Art Gallery, City Museum, Tower of Shadows, Geometric Hill Museum of Evolution, Kala Gram, Log Huts, Nepli Forests, Fitness Trails (in Leisure Valley), National Gallery of Portraits, Central Plaza, International Doll Museum and Smriti Upvan. Dadra and Nagar Haveli Area : 491 sq km Population : 220,490 Capital : Silvassa Principal Languages : Gujarati, Hindi History and Geography After prolonged skirmishes between the Portuguese and the Marathas, on 17 December, 1779, the Maratha Government assigned the aggregated revenue of Rs 12,000 in a few villages of this territory to the Protuguese as compensation to ensure their friendship. The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation by the people on 2 August, 1954. From 1954 till 1961, the territory functioned almost independently by what was known as ‘‘Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli Administration''. However, the territory was merged with the Indian Union on 11 August, 1961, and since then, is being administered by the Government of India as a Union Territory. After liberation of the territory from Portuguese rule, a Varishtha Panchayat was working as an advisory body of the Administration. This was dissolved in August 1989, and a Pradesh Council for Dadra and Nagar Haveli District Panchayat and 11 Village Panchayats were constituted as per constitutional amendments at All India level. The U.T. of Dadra and Nagar Haveli has an area of 491 sq km, and it is surrounded by Gujarat and Maharashtra. It consists of two pockets namely, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The nearest railway station is at Vapi, which is 18 km from Silvassa. Agriculture Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a predominantly rural area with about 79 per cent tribal population. It has about 21,115 hectares under cultivation. Major crop is paddy ( Kharif ), while Nagli and other hill millets are crops of the area. Among fruits, Mango, Chiku, and Banana, etc., are also produced. Forests cover 40 per cent of the total geographical area. Industry Prior to 1965-66, there was no industry in the Union Territory. There were a few traditional craftsmen who used to make pots, leather items, viz., chappals, shoes and some other items of bamboo. Industrial development started on a low-key with the establishment of an industrial estate under the cooperative sector by Dan Udyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd. Thereafter, three Government Industrial Estates have been developed at Silvassa, Masat and Khadoli in the U.T. There are more than 1,600 S.S.I. units, which include Cottage, Village Industries and 430 Medium Scale/Large Scale Industries in Textiles, Engineering, Plastics, Electronics, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, etc., employing more than 43,100 persons. Irrigation and Power Prior to liberation of the territory, there was no irrigation facility, and cultivators had to fully depend upon rainfall. After the merger of the territory with the Indian Union, adequate steps were taken under minor irrigation sector. There was no rural electrification prior to liberation of this territory. The electricity was provided with only one DG Set, which was installed and operated in Silvassa Town for VIPs at Circuit House. After liberation, the UT Administration commenced rural electrification work with the co-operation of the neighbouring State of Gujarat, and completed electrification work in 25 villages by 1976. The power demand of the UT is met by Gujarat Electricity Board through a single Circuit from Vapi-Silvasa, and distributed amongst limited number of consumers. With the commissioning of the said Sub-Station, the electricity department is in a position to provide electricity to all villages. The Power requirement of the territory is being met from Central Sector Power Generating Stations located in the western region. The power demand has increased tremendously due to rapid industrialisation with the extension of Tax Holiday benefit to this UT by the Government of India. Transport The Union Territory depends heavily on Maharashtra and Gujarat road network as the territory can be accessed only after crossing these two States from Mumbai. At present road length is about 629 km. out of which 560 km. is surfaced. Almost all villages are connected with all weather roads. The rail route from Mumbai to Ahmedabad links Vapi also. Mumbai is the nearest airport. Recently, the work of widening of roads in the Union Territory has been taken up to meet the requirement of increasing vehicular traffic.To meet the need of rapid industrialisation, four laning work has been taken up in Silvassa and adjoining areas, besides other spillover works. Converting of two lane road to four lane road for Dadra — Tighra road is under progress.Festivals Normally, all festivals of Hindus, Muslims and Christians are celebrated in the territory, while tribals celebrate their own festivals. Diwaso is celebrated by Dhodia and Varli tribes, and Raksha Bandhan is celebrated by Dhodia tribe. Other festivals include Bhawada amongst Varlist, Koli tribes and Khali Puja by all tribes after harvesting of crops and Gram Devi before harvesting of crops. Tarpa Dance View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
Tourism Tourism sector has been assigned high priority, keeping in view the dense forest area and favourable climate. The prominent places of tourist interest are Tadekeshwar Shiva Mandir, Bindrabin, Deer Park at Khanvel, Vanganga Lake and Island Garden, Dadra, Vanvihar Udhyan Mini Zoo, Bal Udhyan, Tribal Museum, and Hirvavan Garden at Silvassa. To encourage tourism activities, some traditional and modern cultural activities like celebration of Tarpa Festival, Kite festival, World Tourism day, etc., are organised every year. Daman and Diu Area : 112 sq km Population : 158,204 Capital : Daman Principal Languages : Gujarati History and Geography Daman and Diu along with Goa was a colony held by the Portuguese, even after the Independence. In 1961, it was made an integral part of India. After conferring statehood on Goa on 30 May, 1987, Daman and Diu was made a separate Union Territory. Daman lies about 193 km away from Mumbai. It is bound on the east by Gujarat, on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the north by the Kolak River, and on the south by Kalai river. The neighbouring district of Daman is Valsad in Gujarat. Diu is an island connected by two bridges. The neighbouring district of Diu is Junagadh of Gujarat. Agriculture and Irrigation Total area under irrigation is 1,121.03 hectares. Important field and garden crops are paddy, ragi, bajra, jowar, groundnut, pulses and beans, wheat, banana, sapota, mango, coconut and sugarcane. There are no major forests in the territory. Industry and Power There are 1827 small-scale and medium-scale industries in Daman and Diu. Two industrial areas have been developed by Omnibus Industrial Development Corporation at Daman. The other industrial areas are Dabhel, Bhimpore, Kachigam and Kadaiya.All villages have been electrified. Daman and Diu have got adequate power allocation from Central sector power stations in western region.Transport Roads: The total length of roads in Daman and Diu are 191 km and 78 km respectively. Railways: There is no railway link with Daman and Diu. The Nearest railway station from Daman is Vapi on western railway on Mumbai-Delhi route. The nearest railway station from Diu is Delvada on meter-gauge. Aviation: There are airports both in Daman and Diu. Diu has been connected by air and there is regular air service from Mumbai to Diu. Tourist Centres Important tourist places in Daman are as under: Bom Jesus Chruch, Our Lady of Sea Church; Our Lady of Remedios Church; Forts of Moti Daman and Nani Daman; Jampore and Devka Beaches; Public Garden and Moti Daman Jetty, Pargola Garden, Moti Daman, Amusement Park, Devka; Damanganga Tourist Complex, Kachigam; Satya Sagar Udyan, Mirasol Garden, Mirasal Water Park. In Diu, St. Paul's Church; Diu Fort and Panikota Fort; Nagoa and Chakratirth and Children's park at Ghoghla and Summer House are famous places of tourist interest.
DelhiArea : 1,483 sq km Population : 13,80 million Capital : Delhi Principal Languages : Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu & English History and Geography Delhi finds prominent reference right from the times of the epic Mahabharata. Its control passed from one ruler/dynasty to another, beginning with the Mauryas, Pallavas, Guptas of Central India, and then to the Turk and Afghan during the 13th to 15th centuries, and finally to the Mughals in the 16th century. In the latter half of the 18th century and early 19th century, the British rule was established in Delhi. In 1911, Delhi became the centre of all activities after the capital was shifted from Kolkata. It was made a Union Territory in 1956. Lying in the northern part of the country, Delhi is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the east, where it borders with Uttar Pradesh. The 69th Constitutional amendment is a milestone in Delhi's history, as it got a Legislative Assembly with the enactment of the National Capital Territory Act, 1991. Agriculture The principal food crops are wheat, bajra, jowar, gram and maize. However, emphasis has now shifted from food crops to vegetables and fruit crops, dairy, poultry-farming, floriculture, etc., as these are more remunerative than food crops in the territory. Industry Delhi is not only the largest commercial centre in northern India, but also the largest centre of small industries. These are manufacturing a wide variety of items like television, tape recorders, light engineering machines and automobile parts, sports goods, bicycles and PVC goods including footwear textiles, fertilizers, medicines, hosiery, leather goods, software, etc.Delhi’s new millennium industrial policy, emphasizes setting up of high tech and sophisticated industries in electronics, telecommunications, software industries, IT enabling services, etc. The industries, which are non-polluting and encourage high value addition and depend largely on skilled manpower are being promoted. DSIDC is setting up a Training Institute for Gems and Jewellery and Assaying and Hallmarking Centre at Okhla in the building of Hi tech Vocational Centre.For the purpose of relocating industrial units functioning in residential non-conforming areas, the Government of NCT of Delhi took possession of 1900 acres of land at village Bawana, Holambi Kalan and Holambi Khurd for developing new industrial estates. Bawana Industrial area developed by DSIDC is the largest in Asia and is spread over 1900 acres of land. At Narela 900 plots have been developed and allotted and another 600 plots are being developed. Work of construction of 378 flatted factories at Jhilmil IndustrialArea for relocation of smaller units has been completed. 450 acres of land have been taken for development at the Bhorgaarh industrial estates. In addition to the above, 652 hectares of land is being acquired for development into a huge industrial area in Kanjhawala/Kerala.Irrigation and Power Due to fast urbanisation taking in the rural areas of Delhi, cultivable command area under irrigation is getting reduced day by day. Two schemes, namely, ‘‘Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme Phase-III’’ and ‘‘Improvement and Extension of Effluent Irrigation System from Coronation Treatment Plant’’ are under execution. Irrigation of about 350 hectares with state tube-wells and 1,376 hectares from effluent water is being provided in the rural area of NCT of Delhi. In addition about 4,900 hectares of land is being irrigated from western Yamuna Canal network.The firm availability of power for Delhi from its own generating units at Rajghat Power Houses, IP Station and Gas Turbines including Badarpur Thermal Station is of the order of 850-900 MW. The remaining power is drawn from Northern Regional Grid. Delhi has also envisaged a number of generating projects to be taken up. Pragati Combined Cycle Power Project has been established at Indraprastha Estate. A 330 MW Pragati Power Project under construction is scheduled to be commissioned soon. The test run for its first phase of 100 MW has already started. The work of newly planned 330 MW gas based power plant under Pragati-II and 1000 MW power plant planned at Bawana are going on. Existing coal based Indraprastha plant is being replaced by 1000 MW gas based plant.To streamline the distribution of power, DVB has been privatised and Delhi is now served by the two of the best electric utilities in India, BSES and Tata Power (NDPL).Transport Delhi is well connected by roads, rail and air with all parts of India. It has three airports—Indira Gandhi International Airport for the international flights, Palam Airport for national air services and Safdarjung Airport for training purposes. It has three important railway stations — Delhi Junction, New Delhi Railway Station and Nizamuddin Railway Station. Delhi has three inter-state bus terminals at Kashmeri Gate, Sarai Kalen Khan and Anand Vihar.Keeping in view the rising vehicular pollution and chaotic traffic condition in the city of Delhi, it has been decided to start Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) in Delhi. The Project is under implementation and is using the state of- the-art modern technology. The metro rail project has come in Delhi. Now three metro corridors are existing in phase-1 of Delhi Metro comprising of three corridors of total length of 65.1 Km has been completed and operational in record time with full commissioning of line from Shahdara to Rithala andVishwa Vidyalaya to Central Secretariat. The third line from Barakambha road to Dwarka has also been approved to provide better connectivity to the commuters from NCR region.Festivals Being a cosmopolitan city, all major festivals of India are celebrated here. Moreover, some tourism festivals have become regular annual events of Delhi. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation organises Roshnara Festival, Shalimar Festival, Qutub Festival, Winter Carnival, Garden Tourism and Mango Festival every year. Tourist Places Important tourist places are Lal Quila (Red Fort), Jama Masjid, Qutub Minar, India Gate, Laxmi Narain Mandir (Birla Mandir), Humayun's Tomb, Lotus Temple, etc. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Limited conducts city sight-seeing and excursion tours. The Corporation has also introduced adventure tourism activities, such as para-sailing, rock-climbing and boating. The Corporation has also developed Delhi Haat, where coffee and food items of different states are available at one place. More such Haats are coming up in different parts of the city. The ‘‘Garden of five Senses'' in the South District of Delhi attracts a lot of tourists visiting Delhi.
Lakshadweep Area : 32 sq km Population : 60,650 Capital : Kavaratti Principal Languages : Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) and Mahal HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Not much is known about the early history of these islands. The islands that were supposed to have been inhabited first are Amini, Andrott, Kavaratti, and Agatti. It was earlier believed that the islanders were originally Hindus, and later converted to Islam under the influence of Arab traders, sometime in the 14th century. But Archaeological evidences unearthed indicate that there were Buddhist settlements around the 6th or 7th century. Earliest Muslim converts or settlers pre-date the year 139 AH of the Hijra year (eighth century), of which period grave stones have recently been discovered in Agatti. This would tend to bear out the traditional belief that Islam was brought to the Island by Arab Saint, Ubaidulla in 41 AH. Probably independent till 16th century, the Islands were driven to seek the assistance of Raja of Chirakal to help them avert establishment of Portuguese domination. This enabled him to establish his authority, and later, the islands were transferred in jaggier to Ali Raja, head of Moplah community in Cannanore, who later became an independent ruler himself. The Arakkal rule was not popular and in 1787, Tipu Sultan acceded to the petitions of the Northern islands to annex these islands. After the fall of Tipu Sultan, the Islands were passed to East India Company, but continued to be ruled de facto by the rulers of Cannanore, till their ultimate annexation by the British in the early 20th century. In 1956, the islands were constituted into a single territory, and since then, have been directly administered by the Union Government through an Administrator. The Laccadives, Minicoy and Amindivi group of islands were renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973. Lakshadweep, a group of coral islands consist of 12 atolls, three reefs and submerged sand banks. Of the 27 islands, only 11 are inhabited. These lie scattered in the Arabian Sea about 280 km to 480 km off Kerala coast between 8° and 12° 3' North Latitude and 71° and 74° East Longitude. AGRICULTURE Coconut is the only major crop with a production of 553 lakh nuts per year. The area under cultivation is about 2,669 hectares. Lakshadweep coconut is branded as an organic product. In India, Lakshadweep stands first in coconut production, and productivity per hector is 19,667 per ha, and average yield per palm per year is 97 nuts. The Lakshadweep coconuts are the highest oil content nuts in the world (82 per cent). FISHERIES Fishing is another major activity. The sea around the island is highly productive. The islands stand first in the country in per capita availability of fish. During 2004, 10,300 tonnes of fish have been landed in this U.T.Fisheries View exhaustive collection of pictures on India at Photo Gallery section.
INDUSTRIESCoconut fibre extraction and conversion of its fibre products is the main industry in the islands. Under Government Sector, there are seven coir fibre factories, seven coir production cum demonstration centers, and four fibre curling units, functioning under coir sector. These units produce coir fibre and coir yarn in addition to other coir products like curled fibre, corridor mat, mat and matting's. Small coir units are also functioning under private sector in different islands. TRANSPORT At present M.V. Sultan, M.V. Bharat Seema, M.V. Dweep Setu, M.V. Amindivi and M.V. Minicoy handles the passenger traffic in mainland-island and inter island sector. Two inter-island ferry vessels M.V. Khadeeja Beevi and M.V. Hameedath Bee Provide connectivity between the Islands except Minicoy island with Kavaratti as base port. The cargo traffic in this sector are handled with four cargo harges namely M.V. Ubaidulla, M.V. Thinnakara, M.V. Lacadives and M.V. Cheriyam. Further one Oil Barge M.V. Suheli (60 MT) is being utilised for providing bunker to inter-island ferries. Besides, the Administration operates an ambulance helicopter service between the islands and to mainland and Indian Airlines connects Agatti island and Kochi daily except Sundays.The 15 years Perspective Plan for shipping requirements in UTL approved by the Ministry of Shipping. Government of India has recommended for acquisition of 3x150 passenger high speed vessels, 2x250 passenger cum 100 Mt Cargo ships, one 100/150 MT Oil Barge, one LPG cylinder ship, eight Landing Barges, one 400 passenger ship and two Bullard Tugs. Further the Government of India has also sanctioned 3x50 passenger and one 15 passenger high sped inter-island fries under PMGSY scheme. Out of the aboveAdministration has placed construction orders for 3x150 passenger, 3x50 passenger and one 15 passenger high speed vessels and one 10T Bullard Tug. The Bullard Tug has been delivered on 9 May 2006 and and will be put in operation shortly. The 15 passenger and 150 passenger vessels are to be delivered by June 2006, November 2006 and February 2007 respectively. As recommended in the Perspective Plan it is proposed to acquire 2x250 passenger vessels, six Landing barges, one 150 MT Oil barge, one Bullard Tug and one LPG cylinder ship during 2006-07 and 400 Passenger ship and two Landing Barges during 2007-08TOURIST CENTRESTourism in Lakshadweep is developing into an important industry. Important tourist places are Agatti, Bangaram, Kalpeni, Kadmat, Kavaratti and Minicoy, etc. Puducherry Area : 480 sq km Population : 974,345 Capital : Puducherry Principal Languages : Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English and French History and Geography The territory of Puducherry comprises of the former French establishment Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, which lie scattered in South India. Puducherry, the capital of the territory was once the original headquarters of the French in India. It was under the French rule for 138 years, and merged with the Indian Union on 1 November, 1954. It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the three sides by Tamil Nadu. About 150 km south of Puducherry on the east coast lies Karaikal. Mahe is situated on the Malabar Coast on the Western Ghats, surrounded by Kerala. It can be reached from Calicut Airport, which is 70 km from Mahe. Yanam is situated adjoining the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, and is about 200 km from Visakhapatnam airport. Agriculture Nearly 45 per cent of the population of the Union Territory is engaged in agriculture and allied pursuits. Eighty seven per cent of the cultivated area is irrigated. Paddy is the predominant crop followed by pulses. Mahe region contributes in the plantation wealth of this territory. Crops like coconut, areca nut, condiments and spices are grown here. Pulses, groundnut and chilies are the other rainfed crops grown in Yanam. Industry7,677 Industrial Units in total with an aggregate investment of Rs 2,090.23 crore provided employment to 89,296 persons up to March 2006. The total value of production of these industrial units worked out to Rs 12,938.25 crore.Further, during the financial year 2004-2005 (up to March 2005) the value of exports in respect of the various products manufactured by the export oriented units is Rs 601.14 crore.IrrigationUnder the assistance from the European Union 84 tanks were rehabilitated. One bed dam across Pennaiyar at Sitheri was completed at a cost of Rs 5.77 crore and a bed dam across Chunnambar at Nonankuppam is hearing completion at a cost of Rs 3.71 crore. In addition to the above necessary proposal to construct bed damps for ground water recharges at Aratchikuppam, Pambaiyar confluence point at Sellipet, across Malatar in Nettapakkam in Pondicherry and across Mullaiyar, Pravadayanar and Vanjiar at Karaikal are proposed at a cost of Rs 7.78 crore. Also the construction of a bridge cum barrage at Villanur at a cost of Rs 12.59 crore is under progress. Fishing harbour at a cost of Rs 34.80 crore is proposed at Karaikal and in Mahe fishing harbour at a cost of Rs 21.50 crore is under model study through IIT, Chennai. Also due to implementation of Ground Water Recharge Schemes, the rise in Ground Water Table is realised.Power The Power requirements of the Union Territory of Puducherry are met by availing share of power from the Central Generating Stations, and by purchasing power from the neighbouring State Electricity Boards viz., Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Kerala State Electricity Board, and from the Puducherry Power Corporation Limited. TransportFour lane bridge at Ariyankappam has been taken up at a cost of Rs 13.02 crore. the Bridge across Sankaraparani River at Sellipet was completed at a cost of Rs 4.93 crore. Improvement to ECR roads as four lane roads, schemes at a cost of Rs. 2.57 crore are being implemented. Improvements to Beach road at Pondicherry is proposed at a cost of Rs 3.24 crore. Draft plan on traffic andTransportation Engineering, which envisages short-term, long-term, and rapid action plan has been obtained and the works will be taken up in phased manner. New bridges at a cost of Rs. 4.00 crore has been taken in Karaikal region.Urban Development Sewerage scheme in sub urban areas of Pondicherry has been taken up at a cost of Rs. 4.48 crore. The implementation of underground drainage scheme in Karaikal is proposed at a cost of Rs 34.00 crore after conducting the investigation. Revitalisation of Bharathi Park is proposed at a cost of Rs. 2.47 crore under C.S.S. New Sewerage treatment plant in Lawspet and Dubrayapet are being commissioned to cater the growing demand.Tourism Located about 160 Km South of Chennai, Pondicherry (known in Tamil as Puddcherry), the former French Colony of the early 18th Century, is a charming Indian town with a few enduring pockets of French Culture, and an Ashram set beside the sea. Together with the other former French enclaves of Karaikal (also in Tamil Nadu), Mahe (Kerala), Yanam (Andhra Pradesh), it now forms the Union, Territory of Pondicherry. The uniqueness of this town invariably lies in skillful town planning and Franco Tamil architecture. the town is built on the model of "bastide", a fortified French coastal town of the late 18th Century.The lands to an extent of 13.89 hectares have been acquired and handed over to the Archeological Survey of India, Southern Circle, Chennai on 7 November 2003. The Archaeological Survey of India has completed fencing the site. Archaeological Survey of India and HUDCO will prepare the project.Being the legendary abode of renowned saints, ancient trading settlement with Rome and Greece, once capital of French India, a spiritual Power house, Pondicherry has touristic resources in the back waters, rivers, beaches and other areas developed as sustainable eco-tourist facilities. Influenced by East and West, Pondicherry has unique handicrafts in leather pottery, hand madepaper, incense and antique colonial furniture. Late Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru rightly described Pondicherry as "the Window of French Culture".Sri Aurobindo, the great seer, poet and prophet of Indian spiritually, preached his vision and ideals staying in Pondicherry till his life. His Ashram is still an unique institution with its distinctive way of life attracting people from all over the world.The new Pondicherry Tourism Development Corporation was evolved on 1 April 2005 with the aim on new tourism projects, diversification and expansion of the existing tourism activities.



Objective 10 questions

1. Why the document you created at home displays with a different font at school?

Because you have a different printer at school than at home Because you have a different monitor at school than at home

font you used at home is not installed on your school computer Because the version of Windows is different

2. Which keyboard shortcut centers selected text?

Ctrl+C Alt+C There is no keyboard shortcut for this operation Ctrl+E

3. What is the default file extension for all Word documents?


4. Which key moves your cursor from one cell to the next in a table?

Tab Shift Enter Ctrl+Enter

5. How many different documents can you have open at one time?

No more that three Only one As many as your computer memory will hold No more than your Taskbar can display

6. In order to email a Word document from within Word:

Go to File/Send To/Mail Recipient Save the file as an email attachment Start Outlook and attach the file while open in Word This is an impossible operation

7. Which keystroke will take you at the beginning or the end of a long document?

Ctrl+PageUp and Ctrl+PageDown Shift+Home and Shift+End Ctrl+Home and Ctrl+End The only way is by using the right scroll bar

8. How many margins are on a page?

Two (header and footer) Four (top, bottom, right, left) Two (landscape and Portrait) Two (top and bottom)

9.In order to save a Word document as a web page you need to:

Put the appropriate graphics and links on the document Save the document in simple text format Use your web browser as an editor and save as URL Save as HTML

10. A document in portrait prints:

The same characters per line with the same document in landscape More characters per line than the same document in landscape Less characters per line than the same document in landscape Smaller fonts in order to fit the same amount of characters per line with landscape




1. Femina Miss India World award for 2012 has been awarded to –

Vanya Mishra
Prachi Mishra
SimranKaur Mundi
Crystle Stewart

2. Who among the following is the winner of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award for the year 2011? –

Sachin Tendulkar
Saurav Ganguli
Sanjeeva Kumar Singh
Gagan Narang

3. The Mascot of the 2008 Olympic Games was-


4. Which among the following has won 2012 IPL Tournament?

Chennai Super Kings
Kolkata Knight Riders
Deccon Chargers
Delhi Daredevils

5. Who has written “Unaccustomed Earth” ?

Jhumpa Laheri
Kiran Desai
Arundhati Roy
Khushwant Singh

6. Which of the following has been selected for best parliamentarian of the year award 2007 ?

Priya Ranjan Das Munshi
Mani Shankar Aiyyar
Sushama Swaraj

7. Duwuri Subbarao's name was in news recently as he has taken over as the Governor of

8. ISRO has launched successfully RISAT-1 satellites through PSLV-C19 on -

15th March,2012
30th March,2012
26th April,2012
4th May,2012

9. Which country was host 15th SAARC Summit in 2008 ?

Sri Lanka

10. Who among the following is the winner of the Wimbledon open Tennis Tournament 2008 of the Women's Single Title ? 

Serena Williams
Venus Wlliams
Maria Sharapova
Ana Ivanovic

Ana Ivanovic